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1.
标记辅助选择在水稻改良中的应用前景   总被引:32,自引:1,他引:31       下载免费PDF全文
标记辅助选择在水稻改良中的应用前景郑康乐(中国水稻研究所,杭州310006)黄宁(国际水稻研究所,马尼拉1099)OutlookontheApplicationofMarker-asistedSelectioninRiceImprovementZhe...  相似文献
2.
郭乐群  谷明光 《遗传学报》1997,24(6):537-543
药物诱导玉米远缘杂种(自330×DP)BC1孤雌生殖,可在早代(Pa2)克服远缘杂种疯狂分离、遗传性不稳定问题。在2~3年内选育出优良的异源种质纯系540,并组配出优良杂交种遗单6号(5003×540)。它的主要特点:大穗、高产、优质、抗病、抗倒伏、成熟后茎叶持绿。细胞学鉴定指出,纯系540的第2对同源染色体的一条染色体长臂和第5对同源染色体的长臂均显示异染色质末端带,这是二倍体多年生类玉米的带型特征,从而证明,540是具有二倍体多年生类玉米种质的纯系。药物诱导孤雌生殖技术为玉米远缘杂交育种开辟了广阔的前景  相似文献
3.
草地早熟禾无融合生殖现象的研究   总被引:15,自引:1,他引:14       下载免费PDF全文
本文应用石蜡切片和子房整体染色透明法研究了草地早熟禾(Poa pratensisL.)的无融合生殖现象,结果表明,草地早熟禾的胚胎发育分为两种类型。一种是由孤雌生殖形成胚,即卵细胞分裂较早形成幼胚,少数胚囊中的一个或两个助细胞也分裂较早,同时形成幼胚,但两个极核并不融合,三个反足细胞明显增大。由孤雌生殖形成胚的约占观察总数的66%,其中3%为双胚,仅一个是三胚。在成熟种子中也有两个成熟胚并生的现象。另一种是形成胚和胚乳,约占34%。34%中形成种子有两种可能的途径,一是通过有性生殖形成种子,二是由孤雌生殖形成的胚和极核受精形成的胚乳共同组成的无融合生殖种子。本研究还首次观察到早熟禾完整的双胚囊结构。  相似文献
4.
药物诱导玉米孤雌生殖植株的倍性变异   总被引:14,自引:0,他引:14  
谷明光  颜春洪 《遗传学报》1995,22(5):406-412
实验结果表明,孤雌生殖植株根尖体细胞以二倍体细胞最多,占68.9%,其次为非整倍体细胞,占28.7%,其他异倍体和单倍体细胞极少(2.4%)。Pa1植株可分为二倍体和混倍体两类,以二倍体细胞占绝对多数的混倍体植株最多,为83.5%,这些植株生长发育和结实均正常。在花粉母细胞中正常二倍体频率比根尖体细胞明显提高,提高频率为35.3一59.6%,不同材料之间趋势一致。讨论了体细胞染色体变异的来源及其能否延续到生殖细胞。  相似文献
5.
Apomicts that produce unreduced parthenogenetic eggs are generally polyploid and occur in at least 33 of 460 families of angiosperms. Embryo sacs of these apomicts form precociously from ameiotic megaspore mother cells (diplospory) or adjacent somatic cells (apospory). Polysporic species (bisporic and tetrasporic) are sexual and occur in at least 88 families. Their embryo sacs also form precociously, but only non-critical portions of meiosis are affected. It is hypothesized that (i) the partial to complete replacement of meiosis by embryo sac formation in apomictic and polysporic species results from asynchronously-expressed duplicate genes that control female development, (ii) duplicate genes result from polyploidy or paleopolyploidy (diploidized polyploidy with chromatin from multiple genomes), (iii) apomixis results from competition between nearly complete sets of asynchronously-expressed duplicate genes, and (iv) polyspory and polyembryony result from competition between incomplete sets of asynchronously-expressed duplicate genes. Phylogenetic and genomic studies were conducted to evaluate this hypothesis. Apomictic, polysporic, and polyembryonic species tended to occur together in cosmopolitan families in which temporal variation in female development is expected, apomicts were generally polyploid with few chromosomes per genome (X = 9.6pL0.4 SE), and polysporic and polyembryonic species were paleopolyploid with many chromosomes per genome (x= 15.7pL0.6 and 13.2pL0.4, respectively). These findings support the proposed duplicate-gene asynchrony hypothesis and further suggest asexual reproduction in apomicts preserves primary genomes, sexual reproduction in polysporic and polyembryonic polyploids accelerates paleopolyploidization, and pa-leopolyploidization may sometimes eliminate gene duplications required for apomixis while retaining duplications required for polyspory or polyembryony. Hence, apomixis, with its long-term reproductive stability, may occasionally serve as an evolutionary springboard in the evolution of normal and developmentally-novel paleopolyploid sexual species and genera.  相似文献
6.
化学药剂诱导玉米孤雌生殖植株的细胞遗传学研究   总被引:11,自引:2,他引:9  
对化学药剂诱导玉米孤雌生殖获得的植株的染色体组成及其稳定性进行了研究。试验用2%二甲基亚砜(DMSO)+0.1%秋水仙碱;40%ppm马来酰胼(MH)+0.1%秋水仙碱;40ppm MH+2% DMSO三种处理,共获得130粒孤雌生殖种子。本文对孤雌生殖种子的植株及后代进行了细胞遗传学分析、讨论。试验分析了145株孤雌生殖植株和对照植株的根尖细胞,和其中的88株的花粉母细胞。有半数以上植株的根尖细胞为混倍体,但除1株外,其余的混倍体植株的花粉母细胞均为二倍体。这一异常植株的花粉母细胞仍为混倍体,其子代中有二倍体和各种非整倍体植株。这一结果表明,用这种方法不仅能获得二倍体纯系,而且还可以获得非整倍体。  相似文献
7.
8.
Cyclically parthenogenetic rotifers are a valuable model for investigating the relationship between reproductive mode and population structure, although advances in this field have been hindered by low allozyme variability in these organisms. A high genotypic diversity is predicted after population establishment, which would be eroded by clonal selection during the parthenogenetic phase. The resting egg bank, produced sexually, is presumed to store high levels of genetic diversity, with subsequent effects on planktonic population structure. Here, we provide the first application of microsatellite markers to a rotifer planktonic population and its associated resting egg bank. Seven polymorphic microsatellite loci were screened in populations of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in a temporary pond to analyse: (i) the genetic structure of the resting egg bank; (ii) the changes in the genetic structure of rotifer populations during the parthenogenetic phase; and (iii) the population structure after its initiation from resting eggs. Microsatellites proved to be a useful tool for clone identification, revealing a surprisingly high clonal diversity in rotifer populations. The last sample in the parthenogenetic phase showed evidence of clonal selection, as indicated by a low observed clonal diversity and the appearance of linkage disequilibria. The resting egg bank, analysed comprehensively for the first time in any zooplankter, is in Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium, and contains a high genotypic diversity. Unexpectedly, the resting egg bank differed from the planktonic population in its allelic composition, suggesting that resting egg hatching is biased.  相似文献
9.
几类异质1BL/1RS小麦雄性不育系诱导孤雌生殖性的研究   总被引:11,自引:5,他引:6  
系统调查了4种异质(即偏凸,粘果,易变和二角山羊草细胞质)1BL/1RS小麦雄性不育系与其一系列异质同核系,同质异核系,异质异核系杂交,回交世代诱导孤雌生殖性的遗传变异规律,染色体分裂行为和对外表现特点,结果表明:1、异源细胞质与小麦1BL/1RS核型专一互作,有着消弱同源染色体配对,提高中期单价体细胞率的作用;2、特定细胞质背景下,专一核型内细胞单价体频率高低与诱导孤雌生殖性的频率直接相关;3、1BL/1RS易位染色体中易位片所存在系列差异以及1BL/1RS易位染色体外基因型背景不同,诱导孤雌生殖性的频率明显不同;4、提高或抑制不同杂交,回交世代间孤雌生殖频率,不育系母本或不同基因型父本有着同等重要的作用。选择最佳父母本组合杂交可明显提高或降低后代群体中的孤雌生殖性频率。  相似文献
10.
Optimization of parthenogenetic activation protocol in porcine   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
The effects of the electrical field strengths, number of pulses, and post-activation media on chromatin conformation and parthenogenetic development were studied to optimize the activation protocol for porcine nuclear transfer. In experiment 1, electrical field strengths were examined. Oocytes were subjected to square direct current pulses at output voltages of 1.2, 1.7, 2.2, and 2.7 kV/cm for 1 x 30 microsec. The voltage resulting from experiment 1 was 2.2 kV/cm, in which 50.0% of activated oocytes developed to blastocysts in vitro. In experiment 2, the influence of 1, 2, and 3 pulses on blastocyst development was tested using field strengths and post-activation medium described in experiment 1. Oocytes activated by a single 30 microsec pulse of 2.2 kV/cm DC yielded a higher blastocyst rate (56.3%) than oocytes activated by 2 or 3 pulses (<42.5%). In experiment 3 and 4, we investigated the effects of cytochalasin B (CB), cycloheximide (CH), and CB + CH on nuclear development stages and parthenogenetic development following a single 30 microsec pulse of 2.2 kV/cm DC. The percentage of activated oocytes was not different among CB (93.3%), CB + CH (98.3%), control (80.0%), and CH (80.0%) groups 12 hr after activation. Treatment with CB (57.5%) or CB + CH (53.8%) enhanced the blastocyst rate compared with other groups, CH (23.8%) treated- and control group (18.8%). The results demonstrated that a single 30 microsec pulse of 2.2 kV/cm DC followed by culturing in post-activation medium with CB for 5 hr were effective parameters for parthenogenetic activation and blastocyst formation of in vitro matured porcine oocytes which suggests that a single calcium rise is sufficient to activate pig oocytes and to achieve high rate of blastocyst development.  相似文献
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