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1.
1. Failure of anticonvulsive drugs to prevent seizures is a common complication of epilepsy treatment known as drug-refractory epilepsy but their causes are not well understood. It is hypothesized that the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (Pgp-170), the product of the MDR-1 gene that is normally expressed in several excretory tissues including the blood brain barrier, may be participating in the refractory epilepsy. 2. Using two monoclonal antibodies against Pgp-170, we investigated the expression and cellular distribution of this protein in the rat brain during experimentally induced epilepsy. Repeated seizures were induced in male Wistar rats by daily administration of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP) 45 mg/kg i.p. for either 4 days (MP-4) or 7 days (MP-7). Control rats received an equivalent volume of vehicle. One day after the last injection, rats were sacrificed and brains were processed for immunohistochemistry for Pgp-170. As it was previously described, Pgp-170 immunostaining was observed in some brain capillary endothelial cells of animals from control group. 3. Increased Pgp-170 immunoreactivity was detected in MP-treated animals. Besides the Pgp-170 expressed in blood vessels, neuronal, and glial immunostaining was detected in hippocampus, striatum, and cerebral cortex of MP-treated rats. Pgp-170 immunolabeled neurons and glial cells were observed in a nonhomogeneous distribution. MP-4 animals presented a very prominent Pgp-170 immunostaining in the capillary endothelium, surrounding astrocytes and some neighboring neurons while MP-7 group showed increased neuronal labeling. 4. Our results demonstrate a selective increase in Pgp-170 immunoreactivity in the brain capillary endothelial cells, astrocytes, and neurons during repetitive MP-induced seizures. 5. The role for this Pgp-170 overexpression in endothelium and astrocytes as a clearance mechanism in the refractory epilepsy, and the consequences of neuronal Pgp-170 expression remain to be disclosed.  相似文献
2.
Microtubule plus end: a hub of cellular activities   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
Microtubules (MTs) are highly dynamic polymers, which control many aspects of cellular architecture. Growing MT plus ends accumulate a specific set of evolutionary conserved factors, the so-called MT plus-end-tracking proteins (+TIPs). +TIPs regulate MT dynamics and the reciprocal interactions of MTs with the cell cortex, mitotic kinetochores or different cellular organelles. Most +TIPs can directly bind to MTs, but the molecular mechanisms of their specific targeting to the growing plus ends remain poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the members of one particular +TIP family, EB1 and its homologues, are present in all eucaryotic kingdoms, interact directly with the majority of other known plus-end-associated proteins and may be responsible for their specific accumulation at the MT tips.  相似文献
3.
We previously identified a 170-kDa protein (p170) highly expressed in lung cancers as the major subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3). p170 was recently cloned and little is known concerning its characteristics and subcellular localization. In this paper, we report our surprising findings that about 20% of p170 is associated with membranes while the remaining portion is located in the cytoplasm presumably in the eIF3 complex. We also find that p170 interacts with both endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes. The binding of p170 to membranes is through actin filaments, consistent with the fact that p170 contains a spectrin repeat motif that may be involved in actin binding. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic p170 is phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues and the phosphorylation is stimulated by serum. However, the membrane-actin-bound p170 is not phosphorylated. The results obtained in this study suggest that p170 may have other functions in addition to participating in translation initiation. Phosphorylation may play an important regulatory role in the function of p170 in translation initiation and other alternative functions.  相似文献
4.
Role of eIF3a in regulating cell cycle progression   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Translational control is an essential process in regulation of gene expression, which occurs at the initiation step performed by a number of translation initiation factor complexes. eIF3a (eIF3 p170) is the largest subunit of the eIF3 complex. eIF3a has been suggested to play roles in regulating translation of a subset of mRNAs and in regulating cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. In this study, we examined the expression profile of eIF3a in cell cycle and its role in cell cycle progression. We found that eIF3a expression oscillated with cell cycle and peaked in S phase. Reducing eIF3a expression also reduced cell proliferation rate by elongating cell cycle but did not change the cell cycle distribution. However, eIF3a appears to play an important role in cellular responses to external cell cycle modulators likely by affecting synthesis of target proteins of these modulators.  相似文献
5.
Microtubule plus-end proteins CLIP-170 and EB1 dynamically track the tips of growing microtubules in vivo. Here we examine the association of these proteins with microtubules in vitro. CLIP-170 binds tubulin dimers and co-assembles into growing microtubules. EB1 binds tubulin dimers more weakly, so no co-assembly is observed. However, EB1 binds to CLIP-170, and forms a co-complex with CLIP-170 and tubulin that is recruited to growing microtubule plus ends. The interaction between CLIP-170 and EB1 is competitively inhibited by the related CAP-Gly protein p150Glued, which also localizes to microtubule plus ends in vivo. Based on these observations, we propose a model in which the formation of distinct plus-end complexes may differentially affect microtubule dynamics in vivo.  相似文献
6.
We previously isolated a monoclonal antibody named PH2 that inhibits phosphatidylserine-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages. We report here the identification of the cognate antigen. A protein bound by PH2 in Western blotting was identified as the 170-kDa subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3 p170/eIF3a). When eIF3a was expressed in a culture cell line as a protein fused to green fluorescence protein, the fusion protein was detected at the cell surface only after the induction of apoptosis. The same phenomenon was seen when the localization of endogenous eIF3a was determined using anti-eIF3a antibody, and eIF3a seemed to be partially degraded during apoptosis. Furthermore, bacterially expressed N-terminal half of eIF3a fused to glutathione S-transferase bound to the surface of macrophages and inhibited phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages when it was added to phagocytosis reactions. These results collectively suggest that eIF3a translocates to the cell surface upon apoptosis, probably after partial degradation, and bridges apoptotic cells and macrophages to enhance phagocytosis.  相似文献
7.
Apart from their role in translation, eukaryotic translation factors or their individual subunits may perform other functions, in particular, regulating nuclear processes. Primary structure analysis revealed four potential nuclear localization signals (NLS) in the human eIF3 large subunit, p170. NLS were tested for ability to direct p170 into the nucleus. For this purpose, cDNAs coding for p170 fragments fused with the green fluorescent protein were expressed in CV-1 and Cos-1 cultured monkey cells. The location of the expression product was studied by fluorescence microscopy. At least two of the four putative bipartite NLS proved to direct the corresponding p170 fragments into the nucleus. Larger p170 fragments with the same NLS were retained in the cytoplasm. It was assumed that, with the help of some specific factors or after limited proteolysis, p170 enters the nucleus and participates in regulating genome expression. Alternatively, the cytoplasmic function of p170 might be regulated via a reversible binding of integrins to NLS.  相似文献
8.
The proper folding of tubulins prior to their incorporation into microtubules requires a group of conserved proteins called cofactors A to E. In fission yeast, homologues of these cofactors (at least B, D and E) are necessary for the biogenesis of microtubules and for cell viability. Here we show that the temperature-sensitive alp11-924 mutant, which is defective in the cofactor B homologue, contains an opal nonsense mutation, which results in the production of a truncated Alp11B protein (Alp111–118). We isolated a tRNATrp gene as a multicopy suppressor of this mutation, which rescues alp11-924 by read-through of the nonsense codon. The truncated Alp111–118 protein lacks the C-terminal half of Alp11B, consisting of a central coiled-coil region and the distal CLIP-170 domain found in a number of proteins involved in microtubule functions. Both of these domains are required for the maintenance of microtubule architecture in vivo. Detailed functional analyses lead us to propose that Alp11B comprises three functional domains: the N-terminal half executes the essential function, the central coiled-coil region is necessary for satisfactory maintenance of cellular α-tubulin levels, and the C-terminal CLIP-170 domain is required for efficient binding to α-tubulin. Received: 29 November 1999 / Accepted: 18 April 2000  相似文献
9.
In this study we have examined biopsies from women with localized primary breast cancer to investigate the prognostic performance of estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) for estimating the metastatic probability of the patients, and to explore whether discrimination gets better by combining clinicopathological and other molecular parameters into a score. This prospective study involved 205 patients with a median follow-up of 5 y. Among the evaluated clinicopathological data were: patient's age; tumor size; axillary lymph node involvement; and tumor grade. The most representative tumor samples were derived to a single laboratory for immunohistochemical evaluation of the following molecular markers: ER, PR, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p53 protein product, erbB-2 (HER-2/neu) oncoprotein, and P170 glycoprotein (mdr1 gen product). Distant metastases (study endpoint) appeared in 19.5% (40/205) of the patients, most of these patients presented a mixture of poor, regular and good prognostic factors. Disease-free survival analysis procedures (Kaplan–Meier method) identified tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, tumor grade, receptor status, PCNA, p53, erbB-2 and P170 as useful prognostic factors. Proportional hazard regression analysis (Cox) identified in order of importance erbB-2, tumor size, receptors status, tumor grade and PCNA as useful prognostic factors. To facilitate the evaluation of the prognostic factors, a practical and simple score system was derived. A high pathological score identified 65% of the patients that developed distant metastases, while a high molecular score was obtained in 57% of patients with metastatic disease. There was a significant improvement in the diagnosis of probability of being with distant metastases when the pathological score was combined with the molecular score, 82% of the patients with distant metastases showed an elevated combined score. Validation of this scoring system will need further larger studies (validation set as opposed to the training set used in the present study). Due to the complexity of events in cancer, the evaluation of a combination of prognostic factors should be of value to clinicians to make a more objective estimate of the prognosis of individual breast cancer patients.  相似文献
10.
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