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A field lysimeter study was established with the aim of investigating the effect of nitrogen availability upon drought strain in Norway spruce trees. Forest soil (Typic Udipsamment) was filled in lysimeters 1 m in diameter and 1 m deep. Small trees of Norway spruce from five different clones were planted in the lysimeters. Roofs under the canopy of the trees ensured full control of water and nutrient input. Three levels of nitrogen were given to the trees during five years; ambient rainwater, and five and fifteen times this N concentration, respectively. Additional N was given as NH4NO3 in irrigation water. Mean annual N-addition during the five years corresponded to 5, 27 and 82 kg per ha and year for the three treatments, respectively. During the third and fifth growth season drought was artificially induced. In addition to a watered control, two levels of drought were applied, representing water deprivation for 2 and 3 months, respectively, in 1990 and 3 and 4 months, respectively in 1992. A higher water consumption in the nitrogen fertilized trees during the droughts resulted in a significantly lower pre-dawn shoot water potential compared to the trees receiving ambient rain N. The interaction between drought and nitrogen fertilization was clear also for photosynthesis and transpiration. A decrease in height- and diameter increment caused by drought was most pronounced in the 82 kg N ha–1 yr–1 treatment. A water strain integral showed a strong positive correlation to the needle biomass of the trees. Foliar concentrations of several nutrients decreased significantly with increasing drought strain in the trees. Concentration of potassium and boron were especially low and visual symptoms of deficiency occurred.  相似文献
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This work tested if carbohydrates and proteins ingestion is regulated in the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, to optimize survival and reproduction. Adult food treatments were established by providing sugar and hydrolyzed yeast in various combinations either alone or mixed at a standard 3:1 ratio (sugar:hydrolyzed yeast). Individual food consumption was assessed and related to survival patterns. The effects of adult feeding on fecundity and fertility patterns were investigated in groups of flies. Sugar consumption was the lowest in the treatment where it was provided with hydrolyzed yeast at a fixed 3:1 ratio. Consumption of hydrolyzed yeast did not differ between this treatment and the one in which this solution was complemented with one solution of sugar. It seems that a mixture of sugar and hydrolyzed yeast at a fixed ratio of 3:1, respectively, restricts extra ingestion of sugar; most probably because of negative response of the fly to overconsumption of protein. Survival was affected by the treatments, being lower in those cases where protein was at the fixed ratio. Group experiments revealed that protein restriction expanded longevity and decreased egg production. In contrast, egg production was enhanced when flies were kept continuously with a mixture of yeast and sugar plus an extra source of sugar, and this was not in detriment of survival. Our results suggest that fixed sugar-protein ratios in which protein is in excess affects fitness components such as longevity and reproduction. These findings are discussed from a theoretical and applied perspective in the context of pest control by means of the sterile insect technique.  相似文献
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随着社会经济的发展、人们生活水平的提高,氨基酸的各种功效逐渐被人们所熟知,在人们生活中扮演着越来越重要的角色,原本作为医用的氨基酸开始以保健品的形式走入人们的日常生活中.简要阐述了开发氨基酸保健品的必要性及现状,初步探讨了氨基酸保健品进一步的发展趋势.  相似文献
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