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排序方式: 共有330条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
25 years after the nucleosome model: chromatin modifications   总被引:28,自引:0,他引:28  
2.
高迁移率族蛋白与真核基因表达调控   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12       下载免费PDF全文
高迁移率族蛋白 (high mobility group protein , HMG) 是一系列的染色质相关蛋白,广泛存在于真核生物细胞中,含量丰富,因其在聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳中的高迁移率而得名 . HMG 蛋白家族可分为 HMGB 、 HMGA 和 HMGN 三类亚家族,各亚家族有其特征的结构域,这些结构域介导了 HMG 和 DNA 或染色质相关区域的相互作用 . 现已发现这些蛋白质具有多种重要生物学功能,其中几乎所有 HMG 都可以通过修饰、弯曲或改变染色质 /DNA 的结构,促进各种蛋白质因子形成大分子复合物来调节基因转录 .  相似文献
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Histone acetylation and chromatin remodeling   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
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Chromatin techniques for plant cells   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
A large number of recent studies have demonstrated that many important aspects of plant development are regulated by heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve changes in DNA sequence. Rather, these regulatory mechanisms involve modifications of chromatin structure that affect the accessibility of target genes to regulatory factors that can control their expression. The central component of chromatin is the nucleosome, containing the highly conserved histone proteins that are known to be subject to a wide range of post-translational modifications, which act as recognition codes for the binding of chromatin-associated factors. In addition to these histone modifications, DNA methylation can also have a dramatic influence on gene expression. To accommodate the burgeoning interest of the plant science community in the epigenetic control of plant development, a series of methods used routinely in our laboratories have been compiled that can facilitate the characterization of putative chromatin-binding factors at the biochemical, molecular and cellular levels.  相似文献
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Changes in Chromatin Structure Associated with Alzheimer's Disease   总被引:6,自引:5,他引:1  
Abstract— The enzyme micrococcal nuclease was used to examine the accessibility of chromatin extracted from brains of 13 patients with senile and presenile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Compared with chromatin extracted from brains of 8 patients without neurological signs or brain pathology and brains of 7 patients with nonAlzheimer dementia, Alzheimer chromatin was less accessible to this enzyme-. Reduced accessibility was reflected by a reduced yield of mononucleosomes in comparison with dinucleosomes and larger oligomers. Both neuronal and glial chromatin were found to be similarly affected. The reduced yield of mononucleosomes from Alzheimer chromatin is not due to their increased breakdown, but is probably related to protein associated with the internucleosomal linker region that retards nuclease action. Dinucleosomes isolated from control and Alzheimer nuclease digests were examined for their protein complement. Three perchloric acid-soluble proteins situated in the histone HI region of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gels were present in elevated levels in Alzheimer dinucleosomes. These results represent the first example of altered chromosomal proteins associated with a diseased state of the brain.  相似文献
7.
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationships between Fas-FasL-mediated signaling pathway and apoptosis disturbance of T lymphocyte subset in patients with SLE. METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to determine the percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes and necrotic lymphocytes by AnnexinV-FITC/PI double staining. Cell surface expression rates of Fas, FasL, and intracellular expression rates of activated caspase-3 were evaluated by two-color flow cytometry analysis in peripheral T lymphocyte subsets of SLE patients with inactive disease (n=22) and with active disease (n=17). The serum concentration of anti-nucleosome antibodies in SLE patients were assayed by ELISA immunoassay methods. Health volunteers (n=13) served as controls. RESULTS: The percentage of early apoptotic cells was enhanced in patients with active disease (P=0.001, vs. control) and in patients with inactive disease (P=0.004, vs. control). Compared with health control, the percentage of necrotic cells was significant higher in patients with active disease (P=0.001). The percentages of CD4(+)T cells expressing Fas (P=0.023, vs. control) and FasL (P=0.001, vs. control) were increased in patients with active disease. But there were no obvious differences of expression rates of Fas and FasL on T cell subset between two disease groups (P>0.05). In patients with active disease the percentage of CD4(+)T cells or CD8(+)T cells expressing intracellular activated caspase-3 significantly increased compared to inactive disease patients (P=0.018, P=0.027, respectively) and health controls (P=0.001, P=0.001, respectively). The serum concentration of anti-nucleosome antibodies was strikingly higher in patients with active disease (P=0.002, vs. patients with inactive disease; P=0.001, vs. control, respectively), however, the serum concentration of anti-nucleosome antibodies was not obviously different between patients with inactive disease and health control group (P=0.473). The percentage of apoptotic cells correlated with the serum concentration of anti-nucleosome antibodies in SLE patients (r(s)=0.350, P=0.031). CONCLUSIONS: Apoptosis of T lymphocyte subset in SLE patients increases. CD4(+)T cells are a state of active apoptosis. Fas/FasL-mediated apoptotic pathways are especially important for CD4(+)T cells undergoing apoptosis in SLE patients with active disease. Increased Fas expression results in a higher susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis, which contributes to the increased levels of intracellular activated caspase-3 and accelerates apoptosis of T lymphocytes. The degree of lymphocytic apoptosis disturbance correlates with the level of anti-nucleosome antibodies in the circulation. Acceleration of lymphocytic apoptosis plays important roles in immune pathologic injury and immune regulation dysfunction.  相似文献
8.
Histone shuttling by poly ADP-ribosylation   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
The enzymes poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase may cooperate to drive a histone shuttle mechanism in chromatin. The mechanism is triggered by binding of the N-terminal zinc-finger domain of the polymerase to DNA strand breaks, which activates the catalytic activities residing in the C-terminal domain. The polymerase converts into a protein carrying multiple ADP-ribose polymers which displace histones from DNA by specifically targeting the histone tails responsible for DNA condensation. As a result, the domains surrounding DNA strand breaks become accessible to other proteins. Poly(ADP0ribose) glycohydrolase attacks ADP-ribose polymers in a specific order and thereby releases histones for reassociation with DNA. Increasing evidence from different model systems suggests that histone shuttling participates in DNA repairin vivo as a catalyst for nucleosomal unfolding.  相似文献
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