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大足鼠耳蝠交流声波非线性现象   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
非线性发声现象在动物的发声中普遍存在,因其具有进化上的意义而广受关注。非线性现象一般在动物激进状态下发出,可能具有一定的功能,然而国内外对蝙蝠非线性现象的研究集中于描述性的报道,缺乏进化功能上的探究。大足鼠耳蝠(Myotis pilosus)激进叫声包含2种音节类型sAFM和NB-sDFM,能够组成的3种叫声组合:只包含sAFM的叫声组合(A)、只包含NB-sDFM的叫声组合(B)、既包含sAFM又包含NB-sDFM的叫声组合(C),分别对应着没有非线性现象、具有非线性现象及一种过渡类型。通过回放实验,记录7种具有代表性的行为反应(抬头,前臂移动,耳朵摆动,发出回声定位声波,震颤,张嘴,爬行)次数,其中前臂移动和发出回声定位声波两种行为反应的结果显示大足鼠耳蝠对上述3种叫声组合反应程度是不同的,具有非线性现象的叫声组合(B)能够提高同种蝙蝠的反应程度。揭示了蝙蝠发声中的非线性现象符合不可预测性假说,说明非线性现象在蝙蝠发声中可能具有功能上的适应性。  相似文献
2.
The concave-eared torrent frogs (Amolops tormotus) have highly unusual ear morphology--in males the eardrums are embedded deep inside ear cavities. In collaboration with our colleagues we investigated the functional significance of this morphological feature in hearing. Sound recordings in the field showed that males of A. tormotus produce diverse bird-like melodic calls with pronounced frequency modulations and non-linear phenomena (e.g., frequency jumps, different orders of subharmonics, and chaos) that often contain spectral energy in the ultrasonic range. The audible as well as the ultrasonic components of the species call could effectively evoke males' vocal responses, demonstrating that they can hear and respond to ultrasound. Electrophysiological recordings from the auditory midbrain confirmed the ultrasonic hearing capacity of these frogs. The recessed tympana and extremely thin tympanic membranes are adaptations for hearing ultrasound--this sensitivity may have evolved in response to the intense, predominately low-frequency ambient noise from local streams. Finally, results from the isolated laryngeal preparation in euthanized frogs revealed that the origin of call complexity and diversity lies with having a vocal system with nonlinear properties.  相似文献
3.
Bats rely heavily on acoustic signals in order to communicate with each other in a variety of social contexts. Among those, agonistic interactions and accompanying vocalizations have received comparatively little study. Here, we studied the communicational behaviour between male greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis) during agonistic encounters. Two randomly paired adult males were placed in a box that allowed us to record video and sound synchronously. We describe their vocal repertoire and compare the acoustic structure of vocalizations between two aggression levels, which we quantified via the bats’ behaviour. By inspecting thirty, one-minute long encounters, we identified a rich variety of social calls that can be described as two basic call types: echolocation-like, low-frequency sweeps and long, broadband squawks. Squawks, the most common vocalization, were often noisy, i.e. exhibited a chaotic spectral structure. We further provide evidence for individual signatures and the presence of nonlinear phenomena in this species’ vocal repertoire. As the usage and acoustic structure of vocalizations is known to encode the internal state of the caller, we had predicted that the spectral structure of squawks would be affected by the caller’s aggression level. Confirming our hypothesis, we found that increased aggression positively correlated with an increase in call frequency and tonality. We hypothesize that the extreme spectral variability between and within squawks can be explained by small fluctuations in vocal control parameters (e.g. subglottal pressure) that are caused by the elevated arousal, which is in turn influenced by the aggression level.  相似文献
4.
为了解非线性鸣声对凹耳蛙(Odorrana tormota)应答音的影响以及非线性鸣声是否能够增强鸣声的不可预测性,本研究通过回放非线性鸣声和线性鸣声来刺激陌生雄性凹耳蛙,并记录应答次数及统计分析应答音相关参数。结果表明,回放非线性鸣声时会引起陌生蛙(n=22)更多次数的应答,但两种刺激引起的首次应答时间没有显著差异。对应答音相关参数分析表明,线性鸣声引起的应答音在总时长上比非线性鸣声引起的应答音更长且具有显著差异,而其他声音参数(包括平均基频、最大基频、最小基频、主频)均没有显著差异。推测当陌生雄蛙听到同类鸣叫时,出于保护领地和资源的本能反应,陌生蛙都会第一时间作出反应,因此在两类声音的应答反应时间上并没有区别。而在应答次数上,非线性鸣声引起了凹耳蛙更多次数的应答,可能是由于鸣声中的非线性现象使得声音更加复杂,包含更多信息,容易提高声音接收者对这类声音的关注度。本研究结果表明,凹耳蛙鸣声中包含的非线性现象能够增强其声音的不可预测性,引起陌生蛙产生更多的应答次数。  相似文献
5.
PEGGY L. EDDS 《Bioacoustics.》2013,22(2-3):131-149
ABSTRACT

Sounds produced by Finback Whales Balaenoptera physalus were recorded from a stationary hydrophone in the St. Lawrence Estuary from June to September. The vocalizations consisted of frequencies below 120 Hz; impulsive sounds had frequencies up to 1 kHz. Over 80% of the sounds were downsweeping calls. Frequency variations in the downsweeps were correlated with social context. Constant calls, upsweeps, wavers and a frequency and amplitude modulated call were rare and may be context specific. Vocalization rates varied with the number of animals present and context, but could not be used as a census technique. Comparisons are made with the data from other investigators in both the Northwest Atlantic and the Northeast Pacific. Frequency and time characteristics for Finback downsweeps are summarized and discussed as components important for species recognition.  相似文献
6.
ABSTRACT

Spectrographic analysis showed that dholes produce sounds with two fundamental frequencies (components): the high-frequency and the low-frequency, which may occur simultaneously or separately. The fundamental frequency of the low-frequency component varied from 0.52 to 1.44 kHz, and that of the high-frequency component from 5.51 to 10.77 kHz. In calls where both the frequencies occurred simultaneously, they were not integer multiples of each other. They also had different frequency modulations and had additional combinative frequency bands. These are features of biphonation. Our data showed biphonation occurs in a lot of dhole calls (20 to 92% of the calls, depending on the individual (n=14); average occurrence 44.3%, n=1317 sounds). The occurrence of biphonation did not differ between sexes and ages; however, occurrence of the high component only was significantly higher in subadult animals, whereas the occurrence of the low component only was significantly higher in adults. Based on the sound structures, we discuss probable mechanisms of sound production for both the components in the dhole. For the low component, the normal vocal folds oscillation mechanism is suggested. For the high component, four possible mechanisms of sound production are discussed. We conclude that the vortex-shedding mechanism is the most probable.  相似文献
7.
P. HANSEN 《Bioacoustics.》2013,22(3):229-265
The vocal repertoire of the Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus) has been poorly studied and until recently only two call types (chuffing and humming) have been described. Here I investigate the vocalizations of three wild orphaned cubs (two males and one female) reared by two observers in natural conditions in the Russian Far East. I grouped the calls into structural types, and then compared them with existing literature data on vocalizations of the same, as well as other species of the Ursidae family. In total, 1302 calls were classified visually from spectrograms into seven call types: whine, moan, yelp, grunt, snort, chuffing and humming. Classification results were verified with discriminant function analysis and randomization. I also fixed the presence of nonlinear phenomena (NLP) and articulation effects in calls. Whine was the most frequently recorded, as well as the most structurally variable call type due to a high rate of NLP. These results indicate that the vocal repertoire of the Asiatic Black Bear cubs is graded, but includes at least two discrete sound types. This work needs to be continued with further studies of vocalizations of cubs and adults of this species to verify the results of this preliminary study.  相似文献
8.
A non-adiabatic theory of Electron Transfer (ET), which improves the standard theory near the inversion point and becomes equivalent to it far from the inversion point, is presented. The complex amplitudes of the electronic wavefunctions at different sites are used as Kramers variables for describing the quantum tunneling of the electron in the deformable potential generated by its environment (nonadiabaticity) which is modeled as a harmonic classical thermal bath. After exact elimination of the bath, the effective electron dynamics is described by a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation with norm preserving dissipative terms and a Langevin random force, with a frequency cut-off, due to the thermalized phonons. This theory reveals the existence of a specially interesting marginal case when the linear and nonlinear coefficients of a two electronic states system are appropriately tuned for forming a Coherent Electron-Phonon Oscillator (CEPO). An electron injected on one of the electronic states of a CEPO generates large amplitude charge oscillations (even at zero temperature) associated with coherent phonon oscillations and electronic level oscillations. This fluctuating electronic level may resonate with a third site which captures the electron so that Ultrafast Electron Transfer (UFET) becomes possible. Numerical results are shown where two weakly interacting sites, a donor and a catalyst, form a CEPO that triggers an UFET to an acceptor. Without a catalytic site, a very large energy barrier prevents any direct ET. This UFET is shown to have many qualitative features similar to those observed in the primary charge separation in photosynthetic reaction centers. We suggest that more generally, CEPO could be a paradigm for understanding many selective chemical reactions involving electron transfer in biosystems.  相似文献
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