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1.
Microsatellite typing of the rhesus macaque MHC region   总被引:16,自引:8,他引:8  
To improve the results gained by serotyping rhesus macaque major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, molecular typing techniques have been established for class I and II genes. Like the rhesus macaque Mamu-DRB loci, the Mamu-A and -B are not only polymorphic but also polygenic. As a consequence, sequence-based typing of these genes is time-consuming. Therefore, eight MHC-linked microsatellites, or short tandem repeats (STRs), were evaluated for their use in haplotype characterization. Polymorphism analyses in rhesus macaques of Indian and Chinese origin showed high STR allelic diversity in both populations but different patterns of allele frequency distribution between the groups. Pedigree data for class I and II loci and the eight STRs allowed us to determine extended MHC haplotypes in rhesus macaque breeding groups. STR sequencing and comparisons with the complete rhesus macaque MHC genomic map allowed the exact positioning of the markers. Strong linkage disequilibria were observed between Mamu-DR and -DQ loci and adjacent STRs. Microsatellite typing provides an efficient, robust, and quick method of genotyping and deriving MHC haplotypes for rhesus macaques regardless of their geographical origin. The incorporation of MHC-linked STRs into routine genetic tests will contribute to efforts to improve the genetic characterization of the rhesus macaque for biomedical research and can provide comparative information about the evolution of the MHC region.  相似文献
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A thoroughly characterized breeding colony of 172 pedigreed rhesus macaques was used to analyze exon 2 of the polymorphic Mamu-DPB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, and -DRB loci. Most of the monkeys or their ancestors originated in India, though the panel also included animals from Burma and China, as well as some of unknown origin and mixed breeds. In these animals, mtDNA appears to correlate with the aforementioned geographic origin, and a large number of Mamu class II alleles were observed. The different Mamu-DPB1 alleles were largely shared between monkeys of different origin, whereas in humans particular alleles appear to be unique for ethnic populations. In contrast to Mamu-DPB1, the highly polymorphic -DQA1/DQB1 alleles form tightly linked pairs that appear to be about two-thirds population specific. For most of the DQA1/DQB1 pairs, Mamu-DRB region configurations present on the same chromosome have been ascertained, resulting in 41 different -DQ/DRB haplotypes. These distinct DQ/DRB haplotypes seem to be specific for monkeys of a determined origin. Thus, in evolutionary terms, the Mamu-DP, -DQ, and -DR regions show increasing instability with regard to allelic polymorphism, such as for -DP/DQ, or gene content and allelic polymorphism, such as for -DR, resulting in population-specific class II haplotypes. Furthermore, novel haplotypes are generated by recombination-like events. The results imply that mtDNA analysis in combination with Mhc typing is a helpful tool for selecting animals for biomedical experiments.The sequences reported in this paper have been deposited in the EMBL database (accession nos. AJ534296–AJ534304, AJ 564564, and AJ557455–AJ557511)  相似文献
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Spontaneous endometriosis was diagnosed in 43 baboons over a 14-year period. Thirty-seven have died; five remain alive; one was sold and lost to follow-up. The average age at diagnosis was 17.2 years; 29 (67%) were between 12 and 21 years of age. Fifteen (35%) were diagnosed by biopsy and received surgical excision of the endometriotic tissue; four of these were identified during caesarian section, confirming one prior report of endometriosis in pregnant animals. Twenty-eight (65%) were diagnosed at or shortly preceding necropsy. When diagnosed by a palpable abdominal mass, there was a significantly greater likelihood the animal died or was killed as a result of complications of endometriosis. When diagnosis was at necropsy, there was a significantly greater likelihood that the animal died from causes unrelated to endometriosis. Early identification with surgical removal appears to provide a benefit for both survival and delivering offspring after diagnosis. In twenty-one baboons (49%), endometriosis affected multiple sites within the peritoneal cavity. In the remaining baboons, lesions were more localized. Ovarian involvement was seen in sixteen (37%) of these baboons. This paper is the first to describe significant ovarian involvement in baboons, previously considered a limitation of the usefulness of this species as an animal model. We also describe the first reported endometriosis seeding of an abdominal surgery scar in a baboon. Many of these baboons were middle aged, had few or no offspring, or had evidence of a long duration of uninterrupted menstrual cycles, consistent with risk factors for women. Endometriosis was an incidental finding in 17 (40%) of these baboons, consistent with previous reports of minimal endometriosis as a common asymptomatic finding in baboons and in women. Overall, endometriosis in baboons presents a spontaneously occurring animal model that shares important features with the disease in women and the rhesus macaque.  相似文献
4.
国产避孕疫苗研究现状和前景   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
国产第1代避孕疫苗已经研制成功。疫苗构建是采用妊娠特异性强、妊娠期短暂出现的糖蛋白激素--人类绒毛膜促性腺激素(human chorionic gonadotropic hormone,hCG)为靶抗原,应用蛋白质工程技术研制的。抗原不但保留了hCG的生物活性,而且不与垂体的其他3种激素交叉,并克服了“自身免疫耐受性”,使免疫系统对它作为“非自身”而产生抗体反应。以此构建的第1代避孕疫苗原型,经临  相似文献
5.
BACKGROUND: Due to an ever increasing shortage of rhesus macaques of Indian origin (InR) that have been generally used for preclinical AIDS vaccine trials in non-human primates, demand is rising for Chinese rhesus macaques (ChR). However, the immunogenicity of an AIDS vaccine candidate has not been compared in parallel in both rhesus macaque subspecies. METHODS: ChR and InR were immunized with SIV/HIV DNA and adenovirus vaccine and their immune responses to SIV and HIV evaluated. RESULTS: SIV Gag- and Env-specific T-cell responses and SIV-specific lymphoproliferative responses measured in ChR were significantly weaker than those in InR (P < 0.05). By contrast, antibody responses to SIV Env, Tat, and Nef in ChR were stronger than those in InR (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Immunogenicity of an AIDS vaccine can vary significantly depending on the geographic origin implying genetic differences of macaques. This must be considered when describing and interpreting results of such vaccine studies.  相似文献
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We trained Japanese macaque monkeys to use tools, an advanced cognitive function monkeys do not exhibit in the wild, and then examined their brains for signs of modification. Following tool-use training, we observed neurophysiological, molecular genetic and morphological changes within the monkey brain. Despite being 'artificially' induced, these novel behaviours and neural connectivity patterns reveal overlap with those of humans. Thus, they may provide us with a novel experimental platform for studying the mechanisms of human intelligence, for revealing the evolutionary path that created these mechanisms from the 'raw material' of the non-human primate brain, and for deepening our understanding of what cognitive abilities are and of those that are not uniquely human. On these bases, we propose a theory of 'intentional niche construction' as an extension of natural selection in order to reveal the evolutionary mechanisms that forged the uniquely intelligent human brain.  相似文献
9.
Despite a dramatic loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease, clinical symptoms only arise with 70–80% reduction of striatal dopamine. The mechanisms responsible for this functional compensation are currently under debate. Although initial studies showed an enhanced pre-synaptic dopaminergic function with nigrostriatal degeneration, more recent work suggests that functional compensation is not dopamine-mediated. To address this issue, we used cyclic voltammetry to directly measure endogenous dopamine release from striatal slices of control monkeys and animals with a moderate or severe MPTP-induced dopaminergic lesion. The moderately lesioned monkeys were asymptomatic, while the severely lesioned animals were parkinsonian. In monkeys with a moderate lesion, a 300% increase was obtained in endogenous striatal dopamine release. In contrast, in striatal slices from severely lesioned animals, a small % of evoked dopamine signals were similar in amplitude to control while the greater majority were undetectable. These findings suggest that pre-synaptic dopaminergic compensation develops in residual dopaminergic terminals with moderate lesioning, but that this response is lost with severe nigrostriatal damage. Such an interpretation is supported by the results of dopamine turnover studies. This enhanced pre-synaptic dopaminergic activity may be important in maintaining normal motor function during the initial stages of Parkinson's disease.  相似文献
10.
VMAT2 and dopamine neuron loss in a primate model of Parkinson's disease   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
We used positron emission tomography (PET) to measure the earliest change in dopaminergic synapses and glial cell markers in a chronic, low-dose MPTP non-human primate model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In vivo levels of dopamine transporters (DAT), vesicular monoamine transporter-type 2 (VMAT2), amphetamine-induced dopamine release (AMPH-DAR), D2-dopamine receptors (D2R) and translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) were measured longitudinally in the striatum of MPTP-treated animals. We report an early (2 months) decrease (46%) of striatal VMAT2 in asymptomatic MPTP animals that preceded changes in DAT, D2R, and AMPH-DAR and was associated with increased TSPO levels indicative of a glial response. Subsequent PET studies showed progressive loss of all pre-synaptic dopamine markers in the striatum with expression of parkinsonism. However, glial cell activation did not track disease progression. These findings indicate that decreased VMAT2 is a key pathogenic event that precedes nigrostriatal dopamine neuron degeneration. The loss of VMAT2 may result from an association with α-synuclein aggregation induced by oxidative stress. Disruption of dopamine sequestration by reducing VMAT2 is an early pathogenic event in the dopamine neuron degeneration that occurs in the MPTP non-human primate model of PD. Genetic or environmental factors that decrease VMAT2 function may be important determinants of PD.  相似文献
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