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1.
Nitrogen Cycles: Past, Present, and Future   总被引:87,自引:18,他引:69  
This paper contrasts the natural and anthropogenic controls on the conversion of unreactive N2 to more reactive forms of nitrogen (Nr). A variety of data sets are used to construct global N budgets for 1860 and the early 1990s and to make projections for the global N budget in 2050. Regional N budgets for Asia, North America, and other major regions for the early 1990s, as well as the marine N budget, are presented to Highlight the dominant fluxes of nitrogen in each region. Important findings are that human activities increasingly dominate the N budget at the global and at most regional scales, the terrestrial and open ocean N budgets are essentially disconnected, and the fixed forms of N are accumulating in most environmental reservoirs. The largest uncertainties in our understanding of the N budget at most scales are the rates of natural biological nitrogen fixation, the amount of Nr storage in most environmental reservoirs, and the production rates of N2 by denitrification.  相似文献
2.
沙棘的生物学与生态学特性   总被引:36,自引:0,他引:36  
沙棘生物学与生态学特性一直是众多学者关注的焦点之一,众多学者在叶表皮毛特征、根系解剖结构和生物固氮方面已经取得了基本一致的看法,但在水分生理生态和种群坟散方面尚存争议或不理解之处。这主要是由于忽视了沙棘无性系植物种群的生理整合作用和觅养行为。因此,今后应该从无性系生长可塑性调节和分株间资源共享特征出发,进一步探讨沙棘的抗旱机理和生态适应对策。  相似文献
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Terrestrial ecosystems and the carbon cycle   总被引:28,自引:0,他引:28  
4.
Towards an ecological understanding of biological nitrogen fixation   总被引:25,自引:5,他引:20  
N limitation to primary production and other ecosystem processes is widespread. To understand the causes and distribution of N limitation, we must understand the controls of biological N fixation. The physiology of this process is reasonably well characterized, but our understanding of ecological controls is sparse, except in a few cultivated ecosystems. We review information on the ecological controls of N fixation in free-living cyanobacteria, vascular plant symbioses, and heterotrophic bacteria, with a view toward developing improved conceptual and simulation models of ecological controls of biological N fixation.A model (Howarth et al. 1999) of cyanobacterial fixation in lakes (where N fixation generally increases substantially when N:P ratios are low) versus estuaries (where planktonic N fixation is rare regardless of N:P ratios) concludes that an interaction of trace-element limitation and zooplankton grazing could constrain cyanobacteria in estuaries and so sustain N limitation. Similarly. a model of symbiotic N fixation on land (Vitousek & Field 1999) suggests that shade intolerance, P limitation, and grazing on N-rich plant tissues could suppress symbiotic N fixers in late-successional forest ecosystems. This congruence of results raises the question – why do late-successional tropical forests often contain many potentially N-fixing canopy legumes, while N fixers are absent from most late-successional temperate and boreal forests? We suggest that relatively high N availability in lowland tropical forests permits legumes to maintain an N-demanding lifestyle (McKey 1994) without always being required to pay the costs of fixing N.Overall, both the few simulation models and the more-numerous conceptual models of ecological controls of biological N fixation suggest that there are substantial common features across N-fixing organisms and ecosystems. Despite the many groups of organisms capable of fixing N, and the very different ecosystems in which the process is important, we suggest that these common controls provide a foundation for the development of regional and global models that incorporate ecological controls of biological N fixation.  相似文献
5.
环境因子对豆科共生固氮影响的研究进展   总被引:20,自引:0,他引:20  
慈恩  高明 《西北植物学报》2005,25(6):1269-1274
环境因子的限制一直是豆科植物一根瘤菌共生固氮体系没有在农业生产中充分发挥作用的重要原因之一。目前,研究涉及的环境因子主要行水分、矿质营养元素、温度、重金属、钠盐、CO2、土壤类型以及pH等。水分胁迫会导致豆科植物根瘤减少和固氮效率低下;矿质元素方面,除氮磷钾外,微量死素对固氮影响也很明显;不适的温度会对豆科植物的结瘤固氮产生一定的限制;重金属能从不同方面直接和间接地影响共生同氮,寻找适合作尾矿先锋植物的豆科植物是当前的一个研究热点。本文除详细阐述了这方面开展的研究以外,还浅析了这方而研究目前国内外存在的一些主要问题和发展趋势。  相似文献
6.
The effects of soil aeration, N fertilizer, and crop residue management on crop performance, soil N supply, organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content were evaluated in two annual double-crop systems for a 2-year period (1994–1995). In the maize-rice (M-R) rotation, maize (Zea mays, L.) was grown in aerated soil in the dry season (DS) followed by rice (Oriza sativa, L.) grown in flooded soil in the wet season (WS). In the continuous rice system (R-R), rice was grown in flooded soil in both the DS and WS. Subplot treatments within cropping-system main plots were N fertilizer rates, including a control without applied N. In the second year, sub-subplot treatments with early or late crop residue incorporation were initiated after the 1995 DS maize or rice crop. Soil N supply and plant N uptake of 1995 WS rice were sensitive to the timing of residue incorporation. Early residue corporation improved the congruence between soil N supply and crop demand although the size of this effect was influenced by the amount and quality of incorporated residue. Grain yields were 13-20% greater with early compared to late residue incorporation in R-R treatments without applied N or with moderate rates of applied N. Although substitution of maize for rice in the DS greatly reduced the amount of time soils remained submerged, the direct effects of crop rotation on plant growth and N uptake in the WS rice crops were small. However, replacement of DS rice by maize caused a reduction in soil C and N sequestration due to a 33–41% increase in the estimated amount of mineralized C and less N input from biological N fixation during the DS maize crop. As a result, there was 11–12% more C sequestration and 5–12% more N accumulation in soils continuously cropped with rice than in the M-R rotation with the greater amounts sequestered in N-fertilized treatments. These results document the capacity of continuous, irrigated rice systems to sequester C and N during relatively short time periods. This revised version was published online in June 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
7.
Biological nitrogen fixation in mixed legume/grass pastures   总被引:18,自引:2,他引:16  
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in mixed legume/grass pastures is reviewed along with the importance of transfer of fixed nitrogen (N) to associated grasses. Estimates of BNF depend on the method of measurement and some of the advantages and limitations of the main methods are outlined. The amounts of N fixed from atmospheric N2 in legume/grass pastures throughout the world is summarised and range from 13 to 682 kg N ha-1 yr-1. the corresponding range for grazed pastures, which have been assessed for white clover pastures only, is 55 to 296 kg N ha-1 yr-1.Biological nitrogen fixation by legumes in mixed pastures is influenced by three primary factors; legume persistence and production, soil N status, and competition with the associated grass(es). These factors and the interactions between them are discussed. Legume persistence, production and BNF is also influenced by many factors and this review centres on the important effects of soil moisture status, soil acidity, nutrition, and pests and disease.Soil N status interacts directly with BNF in the short and long term. In the short-term, increases in soil inorganic N occurs during dry conditions and where N fertiliser is used, and these will reduce BNF. In the long-term, BNF leads to accumulation of soil N, grass dominance, and reduced BNF. However, cyclical patterns of legume and grass dominance can occur due, at least in part, to temporal changes in plant-available N levels in soil. Thus, there is a dynamic relationship between legumes and grasses whereby uptake of soil N by grass reduces the inhibitory effect of soil N on BNF and competition by grasses reduces legume production and BNF. Factors affecting the competition between legumes and grasses are considered including grass species, grazing animals, and grazing or cutting management.Some fixed N is transferred from legumes to associated grasses. The amount of N transferred below-ground, predominantly through decomposition of legume roots and nodules, has been estimated at 3 to 102 kg N ha-1 yr-1 or 2 to 26% of BNF. In grazed pasture, N is also transferred above-ground via return in animal excreta and this can be of a similar magnitude to below-ground transfer.Increased BNF in mixed legume/grass pastures is being obtained through selection or breeding of legumes for increased productivity and/or to minimise effects of nutrient limitations, low soil moisture, soil acidity, and pests and disease. Ultimately, this will reduce the need to modify the pasture environment and increase the role of legumes in low-input, sustainable agriculture.  相似文献
8.
生态条件对马占相思结瘤固氮的影响   总被引:17,自引:3,他引:14       下载免费PDF全文
本文研究了马占相思(Acaciamangium)结瘤固氮和生态条件的关系.结果显示.马占相思根瘤固氮活性的昼夜变化与固氮能源的供给有关,它受光、温影响较大,固氮活性昼夜变化的范围为1—5μmolC2H4·g-1freshnoduleh-1。固氮活性的季节性差异也很明显,且与温、湿度的变化关系密切,在温、湿度较好的5月—10月.固氮活性较高.为3—10μmolC2H4·g-1freshnoduleh-1.冬春的干旱和低温会影响根瘤的生长和存活.造成固氮活性降低甚至失去活性.不同年份和林地的根瘤生物量为104—625kg·ha-1,以幼林期根瘤生物量较高.多数样地的根瘤生物量在300hg·ha-1以上.随着森林生态系统的发展.根系往土层深处生长以及林下草本和灌木层的增长等原因,根瘤生物量会受影响而有所下降。施肥松土能提高根瘤生物量57—344kg·ha-1,对增加固氮量有重大意义。  相似文献
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