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This article discusses the perspectives of Chinatown’s traditional Chinese medical practitioners on tuberculosis among New York City’s Chinese laborers. The practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the United States is neither regulated nor well understood. Some public health providers have expressed their concern that the use of TCM could prevent Chinese tuberculosis patients from receiving proper, biomedical treatment. Contrary to the suspicion of public health providers, the traditional Chinese medical practitioners in the context of New York City’s Chinatown provide diverse methods of health care, many being familiar with the biomedical explanation for tuberculosis. All TCM informants in this study stated that biomedicine is more effective than Chinese medicine in treating tuberculosis. TCM in tuberculosis therapy is said to complement biomedicine and to restore bodily balance and the general health of patients. This study discusses the political–economic context shaping the explanation and treatment of tuberculosis among traditional Chinese medical practitioners and broadens our understanding of the various contexts in which TCM and biomedicine can be integrated. Furthermore, it is suggested that an opportunity exists for tuberculosis control programs to incorporate TCM practitioners in the effort to control the disease within New York City.  相似文献
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In the seven years since 2.5 million liters of No. 2fuel oil spilled into the Arthur Kill, the Salt MarshRestoration Team of New York City Parks has restoredSpartina alterniflora(Salt Marsh Cordgrass)to 2.43 ha of shoreline, planting seedlings andtransplants in areas of low salt marsh severelyimpacted by oil. Restoration was undertaken to haltsurface erosion and the loss of surviving vegetationand remnant peat. Biomass, stem density, flowerdensity, height of plants, rhizome spread, basal areaand plant cover were monitored for a minimum of threeyears between 1993 and 1997. Unplanted SeverelyImpacted (USI) reference sites and Existing Vegetation(EV) in the severe impact zone were also monitored.Ninety-five percent of the surface area denuded ofvegetation by oil at USI reference sites remainedunvegetated seven years after the spill. SedimentTotal Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) content was measuredbefore and after plantings and these results indicateda high level of persistent contamination. Residual oilwas not the determining factor in the survival or lossof Spartina alternifloraseedlings andtransplants at planting sites. Instead, plantspacing, shoreline morphology, wave energy generatedby passing vessels, and predation by Brantacanadensis(Canada Goose) were the most criticalfactors. Three years after planting, the abovegroundbiomass at two of the three restoration sites wascomparable to the biomass at existing and restoredeastern North American salt marshes. Seedlings spaced30 cm apart provided rapid cover at two of three sitesand contributed to overall survival. Where initialsurvival was high, goose predation was low. Whereinitial survival was low, shoreline morphology andwave energy were the primary causes of mortality, withgoose predation an important secondary cause. Bedformsat one planting site indicated a high energyshoreline as did sediment texture results for allsites. The fetch along the Arthur Kill is not longenough to generate such high-wave energy, but passingvessels do generate plunging and surging breakers ona regular basis. A reduction in the frequency of oilspills since 1990 has been beneficial to the saltmarshes along the Arthur Kill. A reduction in otheranthropogenic stresses would further enhance theplanted and existing vegetation.  相似文献
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