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1.
Characterization of apelin, the ligand for the APJ receptor   总被引:36,自引:0,他引:36  
The apelin peptide was recently discovered and demonstrated to be the endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor, APJ. A search of the GenBank databases retrieved a rat expressed sequence tag partially encoding the preproapelin sequence. The GenBank search also revealed a human sequence on chromosome Xq25-26.1, containing the gene encoding preproapelin. We have used the rat sequence to screen a rat brain cDNA library to obtain a cDNA encoding the full-length open reading frame of rat preproapelin. This cDNA encoded a protein of 77 amino acids, sharing an identity of 82% with human preproapelin. Northern and in situ hybridization analyses revealed both human and rat apelin and APJ to be expressed in the brain and periphery. Both sequence and mRNA expression distribution analyses revealed similarities between apelin and angiotensin II, suggesting they that share related physiological roles. A synthetic apelin peptide was injected intravenously into male Wistar rats, resulting in immediate lowering of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which persisted for several minutes. Intraperitoneal apelin injections induced an increase in drinking behavior within the first 30 min after injection, with a return to baseline within 1 h.  相似文献
2.
Neurotransmitter release from rat brain synaptosomes was measured following pretreatment with various phorbol esters. Ca2+-dependent, evoked neurotransmitter release was increased by phorbol esters that were active in stimulating protein kinase C. Protein kinase C activation was demonstrated by increased incorporation of 32P into 87-kilodalton phosphoprotein, a specific substrate for that kinase. Inactive phorbol esters had no effect on neurotransmitter release or on the phosphorylation of 87-kilodalton phosphoprotein. The increased release was observed in either crude cortical synaptosomal fractions (P2) or purified cortical synaptosomal fractions. The enhancement was found for all neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, acetylcholine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, serotonin, dopamine, and aspartate), all brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and corpus striatum), and all secretagogues (elevated extracellular K+ level, veratridine, or A23187) examined. It was also observed at all calcium concentrations present during stimulation of release. The phorbol ester enhancement of Ca2+-dependent release occurred whether or not calcium was present during pretreatment. These results indicate that stimulation of protein kinase C leads to an enhanced sensitivity of the stimulus-secretion coupling processes to calcium within the nerve terminal. The results support the possibility that presynaptic activation of protein kinase C modulates nerve terminal neurotransmitter release in the CNS.  相似文献
3.
Characterization of Glutamate Uptake into Synaptic Vesicles   总被引:29,自引:22,他引:7  
Recent evidence indicates that L-glutamate is taken up into synaptic vesicles in an ATP-dependent manner, supporting the notion that synaptic vesicles may be involved in glutamate synaptic transmission. In this study, we further characterized the ATP-dependent vesicular uptake of glutamate. Evidence is provided that a Mg-ATPase, not Ca-ATPase, is responsible for the ATP hydrolysis coupled to the glutamate uptake. The ATP-dependent glutamate uptake was inhibited by agents known to dissipate the electrochemical proton gradient across the membrane of chromaffin granules. Hence, it is suggested that the vesicular uptake of glutamate is driven by electrochemical proton gradients generated by the Mg-ATPase. Of particular interest is the finding that the ATP-dependent glutamate uptake is markedly stimulated by chloride over a physiologically relevant, millimolar concentration range, suggesting an important role of intranerve terminal chloride in the accumulation of glutamate in synaptic vesicles. The vesicular glutamate translocator is highly specific for L-glutamate, and failed to interact with aspartate, its related agents, and most of the glutamate analogs tested. It is proposed that this vesicular translocator plays a crucial role in determining the fate of glutamate as a neurotransmitter.  相似文献
4.
Hydrogen sulfide as a neuromodulator   总被引:28,自引:0,他引:28  
5.
Regulation of neurotransmitter release by metabotropic glutamate receptors   总被引:25,自引:0,他引:25  
The G protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are differentially localized at various synapses throughout the brain. Depending on the receptor subtype, they appear to be localized at presynaptic and/or postsynaptic sites, including glial as well as neuronal elements. The heterogeneous distribution of these receptors on glutamate and nonglutamate neurons/cells thus allows modulation of synaptic transmission by a number of different mechanisms. Electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that the activation of mGlu receptors can modulate the activity of Ca(2+) or K(+) channels, or interfere with release processes downstream of Ca(2+) entry, and consequently regulate neuronal synaptic activity. Such changes evoked by mGlu receptors can ultimately regulate transmitter release at both glutamatergic and nonglutamatergic synapses. Increasing neurochemical evidence has emerged, obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies, showing modulation of the release of a variety of transmitters by mGlu receptors. This review addresses the neurochemical evidence for mGlu receptor-mediated regulation of neurotransmitters, such as excitatory and inhibitory amino acids, monoamines, and neuropeptides.  相似文献
6.
7.
Purinergic Signalling: ATP Release   总被引:23,自引:0,他引:23  
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has a fundamental intracellular role as the universal source of energy for all living cells. The demonstration of its release into the extracellular space and the identification and localisation of specific receptors on target cells have been essential in establishing, after considerable resistance, its extracellular physiological roles. It is now generally accepted that ATP is a genuine neurotransmitter both in the central and peripheral nervous systems. As such, there are numerous arguments which prove that the release of ATP by nerve terminals is by exocytosis. In some non-neuronal cells, however, recent evidence suggests that ATP release could also be carrier-mediated and would involve ATP-binding cassette proteins (ABC), an ubiquitous family of transport ATPases.  相似文献
8.
Abstract: Radiolabelled glutamine and glucose were infused into lateral ventricles of rats in order to label transmitter amino acid pools in vivo . Brain regions close to the lateral ventricle (hippocampus, corpus striatum, hypothalamus) were labelled more effectively than more distant structures such as cerebral cortex or cerebellum. All regions were labelled to much the same extent over 30-150 min by [U-14C]glucose, [U-14C]glutamine, or [3H]glutamine administered alone or together in doublelabel experiments when allowance was made for any differences in precursor specific radioactivities. Slices of cerebral cortex or hippocampus from brains labelled in vivo were incubated and stimulated in vitro with veratrine (75 μ M ); tetrodotoxin (1 μ M ) was present in the control medium. Single-label experiments showed that [U-14C]- glutamine was more effective than [U-14C]glucose for labelling releasable glutamate and GABA. Double-label experiments showed that [3H]glutamine and [U-14C]- glucose given together in vivo labelled glutamate and GABA releasable in vitro to a similar extent. Both types of experiment empbasise the large contribution made by glutamine in vivo to pools of transmitter glutamate and GABA.  相似文献
9.
Recent studies have demonstrated that phorbol diesters enhance the release of various neurotransmitters. It is generally accepted that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is the mechanism by which phorbol diesters act on neurotransmitter release. The action of PKC in neurotransmitter release is very likely mediated by phosphorylation of substrate proteins localized in the presynaptic nerve terminal. An important presynaptic substrate of PKC is B-50. To investigate whether B-50 mediates the actions of PKC in neurotransmitter release, we have studied B-50 phosphorylation in intact rat hippocampal slices under conditions that stimulate or inhibit PKC and neurotransmitter release. The slices were labelled with [32P]orthophosphate. After treatment, the slices were homogenized, B-50 was immunoprecipitated from the slice homogenate, and the incorporation of 32P into B-50 was determined. Chemical depolarization (30 mM K+) and the presence of phorbol diesters, conditions that stimulate neurotransmitter release, separately and in combination, also enhance B-50 phosphorylation. Polymyxin B, an inhibitor of PKC and neurotransmitter release, decreases concentration dependently the depolarization-induced stimulation of B-50 phosphorylation. The effects of depolarization are not detectable at low extracellular Ca2+ concentrations. It is concluded that in rat hippocampal slices B-50 may mediate the action of PKC in neurotransmitter release.  相似文献
10.
学习和记忆的神经生化学机制的研究概况   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19  
Liu YQ  Gu JF 《生理科学进展》1998,29(3):203-208
脑功能研究是生物科学界当前最重要课题之一,学习和记忆是大脑高级功能之一,本文就各种神经递质和神经活性肽对学习记忆的作用进行综述,以便促进改善于学习和记忆功能方面的课题研究了广泛开展。  相似文献
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