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排序方式: 共有1233条查询结果,搜索用时 46 毫秒
1.
A highly purified preparation of a cation-sensitive neutral endopeptidase was obtained from bovine pituitaries. The enzyme constitutes almost 0.1% of the protein in bovine pituitary homogenates. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the enzyme showed a single protein band, and in gel filtration experiments on calibrated Sepharose 6B columns the enzyme eluted slightly ahead of thyroglobulin, suggesting an apparent molecular weight of about 700,000. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in SDS-containing buffers indicated the presence of three major components with molecular weights ranging from about 24,000 to 28,000. The enzyme hydrolyzes bonds between hydrophobic and small neutral amino acids in both model synthetic substrates and biologically active peptides such as substance P, LH-RH, and bradykinin. Peptide bonds in which the carbonyl group is contributed by a glutamyl or arginyl residue are also hydrolyzed, especially if they are preceded in the sequence by hydrophobic amino acids. Leupeptin exclusively inhibited enzymatic activity toward the arginine-containing substrates. This observation, together with the high molecular weight and broad specificity of the enzyme, raised the possibility that the isolated enzyme represents a proteolytic complex composed of units with distinctly different activities. Preliminary attempts to dissociate the enzyme into catalytic units of lower molecular weight were not successful and led to loss of activity.  相似文献
2.
Regulation and function of somatostatin receptors   总被引:26,自引:0,他引:26  
This review summarizes the latest advances that have been made to elucidate the somatostatinergic system in respect to somatostatin receptor evolution, the development of receptor agonists/antagonists, receptor regulation, signal transduction, effects on cell proliferation, receptor-receptor or receptor-protein interactions and receptor function.  相似文献
3.
Regulation of neurotransmitter release by metabotropic glutamate receptors   总被引:25,自引:0,他引:25  
The G protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are differentially localized at various synapses throughout the brain. Depending on the receptor subtype, they appear to be localized at presynaptic and/or postsynaptic sites, including glial as well as neuronal elements. The heterogeneous distribution of these receptors on glutamate and nonglutamate neurons/cells thus allows modulation of synaptic transmission by a number of different mechanisms. Electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that the activation of mGlu receptors can modulate the activity of Ca(2+) or K(+) channels, or interfere with release processes downstream of Ca(2+) entry, and consequently regulate neuronal synaptic activity. Such changes evoked by mGlu receptors can ultimately regulate transmitter release at both glutamatergic and nonglutamatergic synapses. Increasing neurochemical evidence has emerged, obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies, showing modulation of the release of a variety of transmitters by mGlu receptors. This review addresses the neurochemical evidence for mGlu receptor-mediated regulation of neurotransmitters, such as excitatory and inhibitory amino acids, monoamines, and neuropeptides.  相似文献
4.
大鼠血小板中的神经肽Y及其对血管收缩的影响   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19  
杨耀芳  杨丽华 《生理学报》1993,45(4):400-404
特异性放射免疫分析显示大鼠血小板与富血小板血浆(PRP)分别含NPY免疫活性物质90±16ng/10~7血小板与93±19ng/ml,大大高于普通血浆(1.2±0.1ng/ml)与贫血小板血浆(PPP)(1.7±0.3 ng/ml)中的含量(P<0.001)。血小板样品HPLC各馏分的NPY放免活性峰位与标准NPY的峰位相符。PRP经胶原最大程度聚集后,血小板内的NPY浓度降为34±5 ng/10~7血小板,而PPP中的NPY浓度则升高到26±4 ng/ml。1.6 ml PRP经胶原作用产生最大程度聚集,由此分离所得的PPP引起离体灌流大鼠尾动脉收缩,张力上升380±80 mg;上述PPP经NPY抗血清处理后引起尾动脉收缩的幅度显著减小(190±40 mg,P<0.001)。而1 nmol/L人工合成NPY并不引起血管收缩。结果表明大鼠血小板中含有大量NPY,在不可逆聚集时可以释放,释放的NPY可能参与血小板聚集时释放物质的缩血管效应。  相似文献
5.
Abstract: An isocratic HPLC method to measure endogenous N -acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and N -acetyl-aspartate (NAA) is described. After removal of primary amines by passage of tissue extracts over AG-50 resin, the eluate was subject to HPLC anion-exchange analysis and eluted with phosphate buffer with absorbance monitored at 214 nm. The retention time for NAA was 5.6 min and for NAAG 11.4 min with a limit sensitivity of 0.1 nmol. The levels of NAA and NAAG were measured in 16 regions of rat brain and in heart and liver. NAAG was undetectable in heart and liver and exhibited 10-fold variation in concentration among brain regions; the highest levels were found in spinal cord. In contrast, low concentrations of NAA were detectable in heart and liver, and the regional distribution of NAA in brain varied only twofold. The regional distribution of NAA and NAAG correlated poorly. To assess the neuronal localization of these two compounds, the effects of selective brain lesions on their levels were examined. Decortication caused a 28% decrease in NAAG levels in the ipsi-lateral striatum while NAA decreased 38%. Kainate lesion of the striatum resulted in a 31% decrease in NAAG in the ipsilateral striatum, whereas NAA fell by 58%. Kainate lesion of the hippocampus resulted in significant decrements in NAAG and NAA in the hippocampus and septum. Transection of the spinal cord at midthorax resulted in a 51% decrease in NAAG levels immediately caudal and a 40% decrease immediately rostral to the lesion; however, NAA decreased only 30% in these areas. These results are consistent with a neuronal localization of NAAG in brain. Combined with the fact that NAAG interacts with a subpopulation of glutamate receptors, these results suggest that NAAG may serve as an excitatory neurotransmitter.  相似文献
6.
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a putative neurotransmitter abundant in the brain, has recently been shown to act within the hypothalamus, inducing a powerful eating response and a specific appetite for carbohydrates. In the present study, NPY (235 pmol) injected bilaterally in the paraventricular nucleus three times a day for 10 days caused approximately a two-fold increase in daily food intake, a six-fold increase in the rate of body weight gain and a three-fold increase in the body fat of female rats. Subsequently, the food intake and body weight of these subjects decreased precipitously, reaching control levels 20 days postinjection. These findings, demonstrating that exogenous NPY is capable of overriding mechanisms of satiety and body weight control, suggest that disturbances in NPY function may play a role in some disorders of eating behavior and body weight regulation.  相似文献
7.
The neurokinin A-like immunoreactivity in an extract of rabbit small intestine was resolved into two molecular forms by gel permeation chromatography. These components were purified to apparent homogeneity by reverse-phase HPLC. The primary structure of the larger component was established as the following: Asp-Ala-Gly-His-Gly-Gln-Ile-Ser-His-Lys-Arg-His-Lys-Thr-Asp-Ser-Phe-Val- Gly-Leu - Met.NH2. This amino acid sequence represents residues (72-92) of gamma-preprotachykinin, as predicted from the nucleotide sequence of a cloned cDNA from the rat. The peptide, termed neuropeptide-gamma, lacks residues (3-17) of neuropeptide K, and this segment is specified exactly by exon 4 in the preprotachykinin gene. The smaller form of neurokinin A-like immunoreactivity was identical to neurokinin A. Neuropeptide K was not present in the extract, demonstrating that the pathways of post-translational processing of beta- and gamma-preprotachykinins in the rabbit gut are different.  相似文献
8.
The mechanisms initiating and perpetuating the fibrogenic response in the injured liver are not well understood. Hepatic stellate cells are activated by liver injury to become proliferative and fibrogenic myofibroblasts. Emerging evidence suggests that the sympathetic nervous system may play a role in the development of cirrhosis. It is not known, however, whether this requires a direct interaction between sympathetic neurotransmitters and stellate cell receptors, or results indirectly, from sympathetic effects on the vasculature. Using cultured hepatic stellate cells, we show that the sympathetic neurotransmitters, norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y, markedly stimulate the proliferation of activated, myofibroblastic, hepatic stellate cells. Norepinephrine, but not neuropeptide Y, also induces collagen gene expression. In conclusion, physiologically relevant concentrations of sympathetic neurotransmitters directly modulate the phenotype of hepatic stellate cells. This suggests that targeted interruption of sympathetic nervous system signaling in hepatic stellate cells may be useful in constraining the fibrogenic response to liver injury.  相似文献
9.
Identification of Bradykinin in Mammalian Brain   总被引:13,自引:6,他引:7  
Abstract: Bradykinin-like activity was purified from acetic acid extracts of saline-perfused rat brains by gel filtration chromatography and two reverse-phase HPLC systems capable of resolving bradykinin from lysyl-bradykinin and other bradykinin analogs and fragments. Addition of [3H]bradykinin to extracts permitted calculation of recoveries and monitoring of chromatographic fractions. Fractions were examined by radioimmunoassay using a potent and highly specific antiserum raised against bradykinin-human albumin conjugates in rabbits. Bradykinin receptor-active material was also measured by radioreceptor assay using guinea pig ileum, as well as by a bioassay with the estrous rat uterus. Active material chromatographed as authentic bradykinin in all systems. Levels of 0.6 pmol/g whole rat brain were detected, with eight times higher levels in the hypothalamus. Activity increased up to 10-fold following treatment with trypsin; treatment with α-chymotrypsin or angiotensin-converting enzyme substantially reduced activity. Similar levels and distribution of bradykinin-like activity were also detected in guinea pig brain extracts. These data substantiate the existence of authentic bradykinin in mammalian brain.  相似文献
10.
Summary The distribution of galanin-immunoreactive (GAL-IR) neurons was mapped in detail in the gastro-intestinal tract of the rat, mouse, guinea-pig and pig by use of the indirect immunofluorescence technique. GAL-IR cell bodies were found in both the submucous and the myenteric plexus, with considerably higher numbers in the former ganglia. The largest number of GAL-IR perikarya was seen in the duodenal submucous plexus of the pig. With some (single) exceptions, GAL-IR cell somata were not observed in the myenteric plexus of the pig and guinea-pig, and in the submucous plexus of the esophagus and the stomach of the guinea-pig.GAL-IR fibers ocurred in most parts of the gastro-intestinal tract. In the lamina propria a few non-varicose, weakly fluorescent fibers were noted in the mouse and rat, whereas in the pig and guinea-pig were large numbers of GAL-IR fibers with a varicose appearance was observed. These fibers were in all species most numerous in the distal portion of the intestinal tract. In the submucosa GAL-IR fibers were detected in all four species, and in the pig and guinea-pig some fibers surrounded blood vessels. A large number of GAL-IR fibers was generally seen in the circular smooth muscle layer, except in the guinea-pig, which only seemed to contain a few fibers. In the longitudinal muscle layer only single fibers could be detected. However, the gastric fundus region of the pig contained a moderate number of fibers in the longitudinally and obliquely oriented layers.In general, in the rat, mouse and pig, the submucous and myenteric plexus contained moderate or large numbers of GAL-IR fibers. In the guinea-pig, no or only single fibers were observed in the plexus of the upper gastro-intestinal tract and the rectum, while moderate numbers were seen in the ileum and colon.Thin adjacent sections stained for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and GAL revealed the coexistence of these two peptides in cell bodies of the myenteric plexus in the pig duodenum and guinea-pig colon. In these two species the GALand VIP-nerve fiber networks also exhibited marked similarities. However, in the rat and mouse VIPand GAL-distribution patterns were in general different.The present findings indicate the presence of yet another neuropeptide or peptide family in the gastro-intestinal tract of several rodents and the pig.  相似文献
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