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1.
无锡太湖地区夜鹭及白鹭繁殖生物学研究   总被引:18,自引:2,他引:16       下载免费PDF全文
1999年 4~ 6月对分布在无锡地区的夜鹭 (Nycticoraxnycticorax)和白鹭 (Egrettagarzetta)的繁殖生物学进行了调查研究 ,调查地面积约 2 72 37 5m2 ,植被以马尾松 (Pinusmassoniana)和香樟树 (Cinnamomumhupehanum)为主。研究结果表明 :栖息地共有鹭巢近万个 ,平均密度为 0 36个 /m2 ,每棵树上平均巢数为1 0 6个 ,最多达 2 5个 /棵树 ;平均窝卵数夜鹭为 3 5 5枚 ,白鹭为 4 89枚 ;平均窝雏数夜鹭为 2 6 8只 ,白鹭为3 96只 ;孵化期白鹭为 1 9~ 2 1天 ,夜鹭为 2 2~ 2 3天 ;孵化成功率白鹭为 84 2 5 % ,夜鹭为 75 46 % ;白鹭雏鸟主要以小型鱼类和虾类为食 ,夜鹭雏鸟主要以鱼类和两栖类为食。  相似文献
2.
Life history theory predicts a trade-off between number and quality of offspring. Reduced quality with increasing brood size may arise from a decrease in body condition or in immunocompetence that would be important in fighting off virulent parasites by immunologically naive offspring. We tested the effect of rearing conditions on immune function of nestling great tits (Parus major) by reducing or increasing broods by two hatchlings. In the middle of the nestling period (on day 8), nestlings from enlarged broods developed lower T cell responses [as measured from the cutaneous swelling reaction to injection with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)] and tended to have lower total leukocyte and lymphocyte concentrations in their peripheral blood than nestlings from reduced broods. Brood size manipulation affected the PHA response of nestlings most strongly in small clutches, suggesting that nestling immune function was dependent on their parents’ condition, as estimated by original clutch size. Intra-brood differences in nestling mortality were unrelated to immune parameters, but nestlings in broods without mortality had a stronger PHA response, higher concentration of lymphocytes and higher body mass on day 15 than nestlings in broods with mortality. These results support the prediction that the immune function of altricial birds is affected by rearing conditions, and that growth and immune parameters are related to inter-brood differences in nestling survival. Received: 1 February 1999 / Accepted: 19. July 1999  相似文献
3.
池鹭繁殖种群数量、活动规律和生物生产量的研究   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13       下载免费PDF全文
本文报道池鹭种群数量变动,种群活动,雏鸟生长和生物生产量。种群活动可划分为适到期,运情期,繁殖期,同鸟活动期,集群活动和迁离期。1990,1991二年繁殖前种群密度分别为1300只/hm^2和1401只/hm^2,繁殖后增加密度为2087只/hm^2和2248只/hm^2。雏鸟体重增长曲线议程为:W=286/1+e^-0.409(t-12.6)1990,1991年繁殖种群的生物生产量分别为197.  相似文献
4.
Begging and the risk of predation in nestling birds   总被引:12,自引:7,他引:5  
Theoretical models of the evolution of begging in nestling passerinesassume that begging is costly, either energetically or in termsof predation. However, few empirical measures of these costsexist. We examined whether nestling begging calls could attractpredators to nests by comparing predation rates at artificialnests with and without playbacks of tree swallow begging calls.Nests were baited with quail eggs and placed in pairs on theground or in modified nest-boxes. Nests with playbacks of beggingcalls were depredated before control nests significantly moreoften in both the ground and nest-box trials, suggesting thatpredators may use begging calls to locate nests. These resultssuggest that the risk of nest predation may be increased becauseof calling by nestlings and provide further support for theassumption that conspicuous begging is costly in terms of predation  相似文献
5.
红头长尾山雀繁殖生态的研究   总被引:10,自引:2,他引:8  
在安徽合肥紫蓬山区,对红头长尾山雀的繁殖生态进行了系统的观察,并研究了雏鸟的生长特征。研究表明,红头长尾山雀自3月中旬以后开始发情,3月下旬开始营巢,巢位于杉树枝下,球形侧开口或侧顶开口。4月初产卵,每窝平均产6.25枚卵,孵化期为15—16d,孵化率为88%。育维期15—16d,22维全部成活到离巢,雏成活率达100%。体重、翅、嘴峰、跗跖、第5枚初级飞羽和尾羽等形态学参数适合用Logistic曲线方程拟合,拟合参数中,嘴峰的拐点最小,飞羽、翅和尾羽的增长率较高,表明与取食有关的形态优先发育,与飞行有关的形态则在后期发育较快。  相似文献
6.
7.
Ectoparasites are a ubiquitous environmental component of breedingbirds, and it has repeatedly been shown that hematoph-agousectoparasites such as fleas and mites reduce the quality andnumber of offspring of bird hosts, thereby lowering the valueof a current brood. Selection acting on the hosts will favorphysiological and behavioral responses that will reduce theparasites' impact. However, the results of the few bird studiesthat addressed the question of whether parasitism leads to ahigher rate of food provisioning are equivocal, and the beggingresponse to infestation has rarely been quantified. A changein begging activity and parental rate of food provisioning couldbe predicted in either direction: parents could reduce theirinvestment in the brood in order to invest more in future broods,or they could increase their investment in order to compensatefor the parasites' effect on the current brood. Since the nestlingsare weakened by the ectoparasites they may beg less, but onthe other hand they may beg more in order to obtain more food.In this study we show experimentally that (1) hen fleas (Ceratophyllusgallinae) reduce the body mass and size of great tit (Parusmajor) nestlings, (2) nestlings of parasitized broods more thandouble their begging rate, (3) the male parents increase thefrequency of feeding trips by over 50%, (4) the females do notadjust feeding rate to the lowered nutritional state of nestlings,and (5) food competition among siblings of parasitized broodsis increased. Ultimately the difference in the parental feedingresponse may be understood as the result of a sex-related differencein the trade-off of i0vesting in current versus future broods.  相似文献
8.
乌鸫繁殖生态的研究   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
乌鸫 (Turdusmerulamandarinus)是紫蓬山区常见的留鸟[1,3 ] 。吴至康等[2 ] 报道其在贵州的繁殖习性。有关巢空间资源利用特点、护雏行为、雏鸟生长模式的研究未见报道。本文是 1996年 3月份在安徽省肥西县的几个居民点对其繁殖初期活动进行了初步观察 ,4~7月又在紫蓬山区国家级森林公园的圆通山林区对其繁殖生态进行了系统研究的结果。现报道如下。1 工作方法根据样地鸟巢统计繁殖鸟类的数量 ,记录巢位特征以及巢和卵的参数 ,观察繁殖行为 ,记录雏鸟的生长情况。拟合雏鸟的生长曲线方程[9] 。2 结 果2 1 繁殖…  相似文献
9.
家燕的繁殖生态及雏鸟生长发育   总被引:8,自引:3,他引:5       下载免费PDF全文
20 0 4年3~1 0月对南充地区家燕(Hirundorustica)的繁殖生态进行了观察,研究了雏鸟生长发育模式。结果表明,家燕2月中旬迁来,9月中旬迁飞。一般年产卵2窝。4月初已见产卵,卵长径(1 9 1 8±0 90 )mm ,短径(1 4 1 8±0 41 )mm ,卵重(2 5 7±0 3 8)g。孵卵期(1 6±1 )d ,育雏期2 2~2 3d。雏鸟体长及外部器官的形态学参数可以用Logistic曲线方程很好地拟合,体长、翅长及1 3日龄前的体重增长曲线均呈“S”型。  相似文献
10.
厦门鸡屿岛白鹭几种繁殖活动的观察   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7       下载免费PDF全文
于 2 0 0 1年 3~ 7月采用颜色标记法 ,记录厦门白鹭保护区内鸡屿岛白鹭 (Egrettagarzetta)卵产出和孵出的顺序和时间 ,并称重卵和雏鸟。有 91 4 %的窝卵数为 4~ 5枚 ,产卵期 7 0± 1 9d ,出壳期 4 2± 1 4d ;卵孵化时间与产卵顺序显著负相关 ;不同产出顺序卵重无差异 ;不同孵出顺序雏鸟早期 (≤ 5d)发育无差异 ,之后差异显著 ,第 4出壳的雏鸟发育水平和成活率较低 ,而第 5出壳的雏鸟最低 ;亲鸟在产卵期的孵化是非连续的 ,而产卵结束后相对连续。如此 ,可以调节孵化时间 ,进而调控异步孵化的程度 ,使雏鸟在生长阶段形成适当的等级差别 ,以获得最大的繁殖收益。  相似文献
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