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1.
伤齿龙(Troodontids)筑巢产卵的行为   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
应用薄壳理论研究中国和北美西部出土的晚侏罗世至晚白垩世伤齿龙蛋以平卧和竖立两种方式埋在沙土中受压破损的抵抗能力 ,分析伤齿龙蛋在蛋窝中特有的排列方式与其蛋壳的抗失稳能力之间的关系。结果表明 ,由于伤齿龙蛋壳很薄 ,其抗失稳能力很差 ,如果这种蛋以横卧方式埋在沙土中就可能在很小载荷下因失稳屈曲而破裂 ;但是 ,如果把蛋竖立起来埋在沙土中 ,则蛋的抗破碎能力比把它们平放埋在沙土中要高出 4~ 5倍。从而认为 ,伤齿龙在筑巢产卵时把一个个蛋竖立起来埋在沙土中是为解决其低强度蛋壳在保护胚胎 ,避免外力损伤和在卵的孵化后期幼雏能够破壳而出这两方面的矛盾而采取的一种保护性措施 ,说明这些体征很像鸟类的兽脚类恐龙 ,其智商可能比人们想象的要高。在此基础上 ,探讨和复原了伤齿龙筑巢产卵的行为。  相似文献
2.
海切叶蜂的筑巢和访花行为   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
蒙艳华  徐环李 《昆虫学报》2007,50(12):1247-1254
【目的】研究毛乌素沙地重要野生传粉昆虫海切叶蜂Megachile maritima的筑巢和访花行为对保护其栖息环境具有重要意义。【方法】采用目测及拍照等方法对海切叶蜂的整个筑巢过程进行了连续观测;以2 m×2 m 样方的方式观测海切叶蜂的访花频率、单花停留时间及日活动规律等访花行为,其中日活动规律每天连续观测,共观测7天。【结果】海切叶蜂在沙土中筑巢,每巢只有一个巢室,其筑巢过程为:寻找合适的筑巢地点,挖巢,构建巢室,采集蜂粮,产卵,封住巢室,筑完一个巢。它连续筑完一个巢大约需要9 h。海切叶蜂构建一个巢室需要切取26~29片叶子,为每巢室采集蜂粮11~12次,每巢室内产卵1粒;在塔落岩黄芪和细叶益母草上的平均访花频率分别为(13.23±6.49)朵/min和(16.72±4.84)朵/min,平均单花停留时间分别为(3.08±2.48)s和(2.49±1.31)s。晴天,海切叶蜂在12:00~14:00期间活动较活跃。【结论】海切叶蜂不同个体之间的筑巢行为相似。该蜂在塔落岩黄芪和细叶益母草上的访花过程、访花频率及单花停留时间具有显著的差异。  相似文献
3.
西北荒漠草原针毛收获蚁的筑巢行为   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
长有德  贺达汉 《昆虫知识》2002,39(4):281-283,280
针毛收获蚁Messoraciculatus(F .Smith)是我国北方特别是西北荒漠草原的优势种蚂蚁 ,亦是重要的种子收获性蚁类 ,收获、贮藏和取食 1 0余种荒漠植物种子。自然巢穴深 80cm~ 1 3 7cm ,单一巢口 ,沿主隧道不同深度有水平延伸的各层巢室 ,巢室向四周的延伸范围随巢深减小 ,层间距拉大。自然巢穴的空间结构与社群越冬与种子的深层贮藏有着密切的关系。饲养社群筑巢行为由蚁后主导 ,起始营巢位点数与蚁后头数有关 ,每一蚁后带领 5 0~ 70头工蚁 ,营巢时程 0 5~ 0 67d 60工蚁 蚁后 ,蚁巢有多个巢口。自然与饲养社群的巢穴结构差异很大 ,但两者单一蚁后与工蚁所占的有效巢穴空间是基本一致的 ,自然社群 1 81 3 7cm3 蚁后 ,2 99cm3 工蚁 ,饲养社群 1 5 6 2 6cm3 蚁后 ,2 60cm3 工蚁  相似文献
4.
The Euglossini are a key group for studying the traits that promote or hinder highly social behavior in bees because it is the only tribe in the Apine clade without large colonies or females with distinct life histories, e.g. queens and workers. There have been few studies on behavior of orchid bee females in nests because these nests are not found easily. Taking advantage of the relatively high abundance of Eg. nigropilosa nests at Reserva Natural La Planada, Colombia, we examined social behavior of Eg. nigropilosa individuals in five nests (3 original and 2 reused) for nine months. We report this species to have the largest colonies known for Euglossa, with nests reaching up to 22 individuals, and all nests containing more than one female bee from the same generation. These nests presented many traits that correspond to communal insect colonies. No generational overlap and no cooperative brood care were detected. We examined natural enemies and resource limitation as important factors for group nesting. We examined parasitoid attacks to cells in a nest with females and one without females. We also searched for nesting locations and examined nest re-use as indicators of nest site limitation. Lastly, we examined behavioral and physiological differences among females in the same nest. Such differences could be the bases for evolution of alternative life histories among group living females. We examined extent of ovary development and oviposition rates in similarly aged females in the same nest. We found large variation in reproductive effort of young females. We also examined differences in resin foraging and cell usurpation behaviors. Behavioral specialization was observed, with some individuals bringing only resin to the nest. Inside the nests, bees had territories in which they constructed and defended cells. This territoriality may be a defense against usurpation of provisioned cells by nest mates. Received 10 December 2007; revised 2 May 2008; accepted 7 May 2008.  相似文献
5.
High concentrations of orangutans remain in the multiple-use forests of the Lower Kinabatangan, Sabah, Malaysia. Compared to primary forest, the habitat is highly fragmented, characterized by a low tree density (332 stems/ha), small tree size (83.6% of trees are <20 m high), low basal area (18 m2/ha), abundance of canopy gaps and high level of soil disturbance. The forest structure and composition influence orangutan nesting patterns, and thus directly influence the results of nest surveys used to determine orangutan population size. In logged forests, tall and large trees are the preferred nesting sites of orangutans. The scarcity of suitable nesting sites in the logged-over forests of Kinabatangan, could partly explain the lower daily rate of nest construction (r = 1.00) versus those of other orangutan populations. The nest decay rate t recorded at the study site (average ± SD = 202 ± 151 days) strongly depends on the species of tree in which a nest is built. Our results illustrate that the nest-related parameters used for orangutan censuses fluctuate among habitat types and emphasize the need to determine specific values of r for specific orangutan populations and of t for different tree species in order to achieve accurate analysis of census data.  相似文献
6.
Summary The European starling Sturnus vulgaris preferentially incorporates fresh sprigs of particular plant species for use as nesting material. Chemicals found in these plants may act to reduce pathogen and ectoparasite populations normally found in nest environments. The present experiments were performed to test this Nest Protection Hypothesis. In the fild, we experimentally determined that wild carrot Daucus carota, a plant species preferred as nest material, effectively reduced the number of hematophagous mites found within nests relative to control nests without green vegetation. Chicks from nests containing wild carrot had higher levels of blood hemoglobin than chicks from control nests. However, there were no differences in weight or feather development. In the laboratory, we found that wild carrot and fleabane, Erigeron philadelphicus, (also preferred by starlings as nest material) substantially reduced the emergence of feeding instars of mites, while garlic mustard, Alliaria officinalis, (commonly available but not preferred) had little effect on the emergence of mites. We infer that preferred plant material may act to inhibit feeding or otherwise delay reproduction of mites, thereby reducing risk of anemia to developing nestlings.  相似文献
7.
栗喉蜂虎(Merops philippinus)属于蜂虎科蜂虎属鸟类,被列入《国家保护的有益的或者有重要经济、科学研究价值的陆生野生动物名录》。从栗喉蜂虎的捕食、营巢行为与巢洞特征等方面进行综述,对以往研究结果中的不同观点进行讨论,并对未来的研究进行展望和建议。由于栗喉蜂虎具有集群凿洞的营巢行为,特别有利于验证生物学中的自私牧群原理,研究不同巢位洞穴的繁殖成效随时间和空间的变化,以及揭示天敌捕食压力对栗喉蜂虎选择单独或集群营巢策略的影响。  相似文献
8.
张琛  王勇  张美文 《动物学杂志》2018,53(5):673-681
为了解东方田鼠(Microtus fortis)筑巢行为在不同环境条件下的适应性进化。在实验室内采用48 h等级法和连续144 h巢材获取重量法,比较了东方田鼠长江亚种(M. f. calamorumt)和指名亚种(M. f. fortis)筑巢行为。结果表明,东方田鼠指名亚种和长江亚种皆能主动获取巢材并建筑质量良好的巢,具有稳定的筑巢行为;东方田鼠两个亚种的筑巢行为在利用巢材能力(P < 0.01)和获取巢材能力(P < 0.05)上皆具有显著性差异;指名亚种雌雄个体在利用巢材(P < 0.05)和获取巢材的能力(P < 0.05)上皆具有显著差异,而长江亚种在这两个方面都不存在性别差异。  相似文献
9.
This study presents the first observations of early-season colony development of Ropalidia plebeiana in Canberra, Australia. The growth pattern of three R. plebeiana nests was measured during weekly observations from October 2006 to January 2007 and showed that nests steadily increase in size over the early summer to approximately 50 cells when the nest is newly established and to approximately 170 cells when nests from the previous season are re-used. A first generation of adult females is produced by December, and the bimodality of the curves of egg, larval and pupal numbers indicates that these three developmental stages last approximately 2–3 weeks each. The nesting cycle of R. plebeiana in Canberra commences approximately 2 weeks later than in coastal Australia, the shorter summers in this inland region restricting the length of the active season. R. plebeiana did not form dense nesting aggregations in Canberra as described elsewhere, with only small colonies consisting of a single or just a few nests. Characteristic comb-cutting behavior of the species was observed but this did not result in complete nest division as recorded from coastal populations.  相似文献
10.
Neuropsychiatric signs are critical in primary caregiving of Alzheimer patients and yet have been relatively ignored in murine models. In the present study, APPswe/PS1 bigenic mice had higher levels of irritability than non-transgenic controls as measured in the touch escape test. Moreover, APPswe/PS1 mice showed poorer nest building than controls and a higher duration of immobility in the forced swimming assay. These results are concordant with the hypothesis of increased apathy and depression-like behavior in an Alzheimer's disease model. In addition, APPswe/PS1 bigenic mice were deficient in retention of passive avoidance learning and left–right discrimination learning, concordant with previous findings in other Alzheimer-like models.  相似文献
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