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1.
人工巢箱条件下白眉姬鹟的繁殖参数   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
2005~2006年,在吉林省左家自然保护区的次生林中,对人工巢箱条件下白眉姬鹟(Ficedulazanthopygia)的繁殖参数开展了初步研究.结果表明,人工巢箱中自眉姬鹟的窝卵数为5~7枚,平均6.0枚;卵重平均为1.6 g.卵大小平均为17.0 mm×13.1 mm.孵化期平均为13.1 d,每巢平均出雏5.4只,育雏期平均为12.8 d,每巢平均出飞雏鸟5.3只.白眉姬鹟的营巢成功率为70.0%,繁殖成功率为81.3%.  相似文献
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An improved, simple nest-box trap   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
ABSTRACT.   The success of ornithological studies often hinges on a researcher's ability to capture individuals quickly and efficiently. Sometimes it is necessary to capture the same individual multiple times, as is the case in many metabolic, ecotoxicological, and immunocompetence studies. Several methods of capturing cavity-nesting birds at their nest boxes have been described. However, these methods proved inefficient when attempting to catch wary individuals that had already been captured previously. Here we describe a simple and inexpensive method for capturing cavity-nesting birds using a square plate of sheet metal (5.8 × 5.8 × 0.2 cm), a drinking straw, a piece of duct tape, and a monofilament line. This method has the advantages of allowing selective capture of one, but not both members of a pair and being nearly invisible to trap-shy birds.  相似文献
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Summary Observations over a 14 year study revealed that Nuthatches had significantly higher breeding densities in a deciduous woodland than in coniferous-mixed woodland. However, the variability in breeding densities between years correlated in the two woodlands. In selecting a breeding site, birds may have to decide on different spatial scales. Possibly, these scales are reflected in a hierarchical series of decisions that might differ according to habitat quality. We correlated the frequency of nest box occupation by Nuthatches over 14 years with habitat parameters and PCA scores of different spatial scales (roughly 0.1 ha and 1 ha). In the coniferous-mixed woodland Nuthatches preferred similar habitat parameters at the small and the large scale like oaks, open areas and forest edge. In the deciduous woodland, however, a marked difference in habitat preference between small and large scale was shown: on the small scale parameters directly associated with nest box characteristics were significantly preferred. On the large scale only structural and floristic parameters associated with the general quality of the woodland were important for breeding site selection. Here tree stands with a superabundance of pine trees were avoided and the abundant oak trees were not important for the selection of a nest box. By further subdividing the very heterogeneous deciduous woodland into two parts, a stand of young trees and the rest of the woodland, opposing habitat choices could be shown. Thus scale effects of habitat choice are dependent upon habitat quality and heterogeneity.
Einfluß des räumlichen Maßstabs auf die Habitatwahl von Kleibern (Sitta europaea) zur Brutzeit in zwei unterschiedlichen Waldgebieten
Zusammenfassung In einer Langzeituntersuchung über 14 Jahre wurde die Nistkastenbelegung durch Kleiber in zwei unterschiedlichen Waldgebieten, einem Laubwald und einem Nadel-Laub-Mischwald, untersucht. Im Laubwald waren 80 Nistkästen, im Nadel-Laub-Mischwald 92 Nistkästen in 30 × 30 m Rastern aufgehängt. In jedem dieser Rasterquadrate wurden 18 Habitatparameter aufgenommen. Beide Waldgebiete unterschieden sich in den meisten Parametern signifikant. Die Brutpaardichten waren im Laubwald signifikant höher als im Nadel-Laub-Mischwald. Jedoch korrelierte die Variabilität der Brutpaardichten zwischen den Untersuchungszeiträumen in beiden Gebieten. Nistplatzwahl wurde in zwei räumlichen Maßstäben untersucht. Der kleine Maßstab umfaßte die Fläche von 30 × 30 m um jeden Nistkasten (ca. 0,1 ha), der große Maßstab hatte die Fläche von ca. 1 ha (9 Nistkästen, 90 × 90 m). Auf dem kleinen Maßstab wurde die Nistkastenbelegung für jeden Nistkasten über den Untersuchungszeitraum aufsummiert. Auf dem großen Maßstab wurde für jeden Nistkasten und die ihn umgebenden 8 Nistkästen die Belegung gemittelt. Dadurch ergaben sich für großen und kleinen Maßstab identische Stichprobengrößen. Die so ermittelten Nistkastenbelegungen wurden mit den Habitatparametern und entsprechenden Hauptkomponentenfaktoren korreliert.Im Nadel-Laub-Mischwald bevorzugten Kleiber bei beiden Maßstäben Eichen, offene Flächen und Waldränder. Im Laubwald unterschied sich die Habitatpräferenz zwischen den Maßstäben: bei kleinem Maßstab wurden Nistkasten-Parameter (wie z. B. die Höhe) signifikant bevorzugt. Bei großem Maßstab hingegen waren nur Strukturparameter sowie Pflanzenarten für die Nistplatzwahl entscheidend. Waldbereiche mit einem Überangebot an Kiefern wurden gemieden, die häufig und gleichmäßig vorkommenden Eichen hatten bei der Nistplatzwahl keine Bedeutung. Bei weiterer Unterteilung des sehr heterogenen Laubwaldes in zwei Einheiten, einen jungen Baumbestand und den Rest des Waldes, wurde gegensätzliche Habitatwahl nachgewiesen. Daraus folgt, daß bei der Habitatwahl durch unterschiedliche Maßstäbe verursachte Effekte von Habitatqualität und -heterogenität abhängen.
  相似文献
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Nest boxes are a popular management tool to increase nest site availability for hole-nesting birds, but biological consequences of this technique in different habitats are poorly studied. In our study area in southwestern Estonia, nest boxes for small passerines were set up in deciduous and coniferous woods. Great tits Parus major preferred the food-rich deciduous habitat for breeding, as judged by higher nest-box occupation, earlier egg-laying and larger clutches and eggs. However, in coniferous habitat more and heavier young fledged per nest, and the return rate of both fledglings and adults was higher. We propose two mutually non-exclusive explanations, both related to the maladaptive outcome of the provision of nest boxes: (i) in the preferred habitat, nest boxes caused a supra-optimal breeding density leading to an ecological trap; (ii) boxes drastically improved the non-preferred habitat, but birds were unable to exploit the breeding habitat fully. One should be careful in providing large numbers of artificial nest sites in preferred habitats. Sometimes it would be more preferable to improve less favourable habitats by removing critical constraints.  相似文献
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The breeding season of the grey starling Sturnus cineraceus is divided into two periods: the early and late breeding season. The birds that breed in each season are referred to as early and late breeders, respectively. In this study, the late breeders mainly consisted of new immigrants that did not breed in the early season. This suggested that these new immigrants were probably floaters in the early breeding season. Because intraspecific brood parasitism occurred frequently, it is possible that the parasites were floaters without nesting boxes. To check for the presence of floaters, two field experiments were conducted and floaters were captured with traps. With additional nesting boxes provided during the breeding season, all new boxes were quickly occupied by floaters from the period of incubation to hatching in the early breeding season, but were not occupied by floaters during the egg laying period of the late breeding season. The addition of boxes before the start of the breeding season significantly decreased the parasitic rate and number of parasitic eggs per nest. There was a positive correlation between the relative occupancy of nesting boxes and the parasitic rate. The removal of boxes again increased the parasitic rate. As for the capture of floaters with traps, the number of trapped birds per day was also related to the relative occupancy of nesting boxes. The floaters trapped between incubation and nesting periods of early breeders became the late breeders. Judging from these results, many floaters were present from the incubation to hatching periods of early breeders, and were probably intraspecific brood parasites.  相似文献
8.
The indirect effect of insectivorous breeding-bird density on Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica) through consumption of leaf-damaging caterpillars in a temperate deciduous forest was examined. Caterpillar abundance, caterpillar body mass and the resultant leaf damage were compared between a plot with nest-boxes and a plot without nest-boxes within the same forest. First, the installation of nest-boxes led to an increase in the breeding population of insectivorous birds. Second, the present study reports experimental evidence, under natural conditions, that a high breeding-bird density depresses the numbers of free-living defoliating caterpillars. Third, caterpillars reached significantly lower body masses in the nest-box plot than in the control plot. Finally, caterpillar damage to oak leaves was significantly less in the nest-box plot compared with the control plot. Therefore, the installation of nest-boxes is an effective means of decreasing insect damage to oak leaves. These results suggest that breeding-bird predation (the third trophic level) can be important in the regulation of interactions between oak and caterpillars (the first and second trophic levels, respectively).  相似文献
9.
T. Mappes  J. Mappes  J. Kotiaho 《Oecologia》1994,98(2):147-149
It has recently been suggested that nest box studies might bias the measurement of behavioural and life-history traits, because the removal of old nests may reduce the load of ectoparasites. This experimental artefact may have notable effects on nest site choice and breeding success in cavity-breeding birds. We tested (i) if pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca prefer clean nest boxes and (ii) if old nest material affects the number of parasites and the breeding success of pied flycatchers. In the first experiment we offered birds one cleaned nest box and one nest box with old nest material from the previous year. The two nest boxes were placed in very similar sites near each other. In this experiment all pied flycatchers clearly preferred dirty nest boxes. In the second part of the study we distributed clean nest boxes and dirty ones on the same study area. After breeding was over we counted the number of fleas Ceratophyllus gallinae in the nest material. This flea species was the most abundant and probably the most hazardous parasite in the nests. Surprisingly, we found that there were significantly more fleas in the nest boxes with nests of the current year only than in the boxes with nests of both current and previous year. This might explain the preference for the dirty boxes. However, our results do not indicate that the number of fleas affects breeding success in the pied flycatcher.  相似文献
10.
The size and spatial distribution of home ranges in two sympatric field mouse species,Apodemus speciosus andApodemus argenteus, were revealed by the capture-recapture method in a temperate deciduous forest from June 1987 to June 1990. InA. speciosus, the home ranges of males were significantly larger tha those of females, and overlapped with those of other males and females during the breeding season. InA. argenteus, the home range of each male overlapped only that of a single female throughout the year. These results suggested thatA. speciosus was promiscuous or polygynous andA. argenteus was monogamous.  相似文献
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