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Xim Cerdá  Javier Retana 《Oecologia》1998,113(4):577-583
Camponotus foreli (Emery) and Cataglyphis iberica (Emery) are two sympatric, subordinate ant species that have been found to fight in attacks that usually conclude with the death of many workers of both species and with nest abandonment by C. iberica. These harassment episodes have been observed in two different areas and over many years of study. No such attacks of C. foreli were observed in the study areas against any other ant species, nor did any other ants attack C. iberica nests, and laboratory confrontations confirmed this specificity. These attacks neither eliminated C. iberica colonies, nor distanced them from C. foreli nests. Moreover, there was no real competition for food between the species: in an experiment where all C. iberica colonies were eliminated from an area, rates of prey and liquid food collection by C. foreli nests in the exclusion zone were similar to those found in the control zone with C. iberica, and the activity rhythms of C. foreli did not change in the absence of C. iberica. The hypothesis of competition for a nest site is more consistent. Both in the laboratory and the field, the most frequent outcome of these aggressive interactions was the occupation of the C. iberica nest by C. foreli. This behavior may be advantageous for C. foreli, because it is much less skilful at excavating than C. iberica. One of the chief concerns of this study is to show that such interference interactions, typical especially of dominant, very aggressive species, are also found between subordinate, apparently nonaggressive species. Received: 20 March 1997 / Accepted: 29 September 1997  相似文献
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Summary During the late pre-emergence phase, a foundress of the paper waspPolistes biglumis bimaculatus may be expelled by a conspecific female from her own nest (usurpation) or, less frequently, joined by another female of the same species (late association). The behaviour of femalePolistes biglumis bimaculatus, when usurping a conspecific colony or joining another foundress, is compared with that of foundresses on non-usurped colonies. The most conspicous difference is the intense abdomen stroking behaviour the usurper performs over the comb surface on the first days after usurpation. As observed in otherPolistes species, once usurpers and joiners arrive on a strange nest they will destroy most of the immature brood of the previous nest owner. Although host workers are not aggressive towards the intruder females, reproductive success of usurpers and joiners is low compared with that of legitimate foundresses. The same behaviours observed on usurped colonies are found in the obligate social parasites ofPolistes. These behaviours are therefore discussed in the context of the evolution of intra- and inter-specific parasitism.  相似文献
3.
One hundred twenty-five colonies of a population of the montane, haplometrotic, paper waspPolistes biglumis bimaculatus were marked for identification and then periodically surveyed during an entire summer period. This made it possible to record intraspecific nest usurpations (both single and multiple) and to observe associations between two females, defined here as late associations. Both usurpation and late association occurred primarily in the latter half of the preemergence period. Some evidence suggests that a foundress usurps a conspecific nest as a consequence of her own nest failure. After nest failure, usurpation and late association are the only available options for achieving reproductive success because, in the mountain habitat, the short summer does not allow for successful renesting. Late associations generally occurred earlier than usurpation. However, our evidence suggests that nest usurpation and late association may be the same phenomenon.  相似文献
4.
Variations from the normal female-male sequence of eggs in nests of the leafcutter bee,Megachile rotundata, were examined. Three alternatives were considered: Out-of-sequence males (i) were diploids, (ii) were the result of supersedure of nests or intraspecific brood parasitism, or (iii) were the result of females occasionally laying a male-female sequence. Electrophoretic data provided definitive evidence of diploid males and of multiple females laying in 7 of 18 nests. In the others, the remaining explanation is that females occasionally lay male eggs before female eggs in a nest.  相似文献
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The Australian stingless bee Trigona carbonaria sometimes displays a striking collective behaviour, known as a ‘fighting swarm’ in which thousands of workers fight and die. Molecular analysis of eight naturally-occurring fights showed they almost always comprise just two colonies, one of which is located within 2 m of the fight. Fighting swarms were experimentally triggered by manipulating colonies so that they received non-nestmate workers. Combined, our investigations suggest that T. carbonaria fighting swarms arise as a collective defence of the nest from conspecific invasion (e.g. robbery or nest usurpation) Received 16 November 2007; revised 31 March 2008; accepted 1 July 2008.  相似文献
7.
Polistes foundresses can behave as facultative social parasites when, instead of founding their own nest, they usurp colonies of the same or a different species and temporary use the host workforce to raise their own brood. Conspecific usurpation appears to be common among Polistes wasps, but nothing is known about the mechanisms that these facultative social parasites use to have themselves accepted within usurped colonies. Using behavioural tests, we studied the chemical strategies employed by females of Polistes nimphus when they behave as facultative social parasites in colonies of the same or of a different species. We hypothesized that usurpers would mark host nests with their own odours and/or acquire host nest odours in order to camouflage their real identity from host workers. Our results indicated that P. nimphus usurpers used different chemical strategies depending on host nest species: they acquired conspecific host odours but marked heterospecific host combs with their own odours.  © 2007 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2007, 91 , 505–512.  相似文献
8.
I report an instance of usurpation of a Crowned Lapwing Vanellus coronatus nest by a pair of African Wattled Lapwings Vanellus senegalensis. The nest, which originally contained a single Crowned Lapwing egg, eventually contained an additional three Wattled Lapwing eggs, before it was predated. Although parents of both species were observed in the vicinity of the nest, video monitoring showed that the Wattled Lapwings incubated all four eggs. Detection of embryonic heart rate suggested that all the eggs were probably viable up until the nest was destroyed. Nest usurpation in shorebirds is rare, and given the easily accommodated nest requirements and minimal costs of nest construction in these species, is difficult to explain. I speculate that the occurrence described here may represent a case of mistaken identity by the female Wattled Lapwing when choosing a nest scrape, since there seems to have been little benefit to the usurping species of taking over an already occupied nest.  相似文献
9.
黄佳亮  梁伟 《动物学杂志》2017,52(4):565-573
部分鸟类在繁殖过程中,为避免被捕食、减少繁殖投入等而选择占用其他鸟类的巢.2014~2016年每年的4~8月,在吉林向海国家级自然保护区记录到4种占用喜鹊巢进行繁殖的鸟类,其中绿头鸭(Anas platyrhynchos)8巢,纵纹腹小鹗(Athene noctua)4巢,长耳鹗(Aiso otus)5巢,麻雀(Passer montanus)6巢.大部分(82.6%)为利用喜鹊的废弃旧巢,而绿头鸭(1巢)、长耳鹗(2巢)和纵纹腹小鹗(1巢)少数侵占喜鹊当年新建的巢.  相似文献
10.
1. Like avian brood parasites, obligate insect social parasites exploit the parental care of a host species to rear their brood, causing an evident loss of host reproductive success. This fitness cost imposes selective pressure on the host to reduce the parasite effect. A possible outcome of an evolutionary arms race is the selection of host morphological counter‐adaptations to resist parasite attacks. 2. We studied host–parasite pairs of Polistes wasps in which the fighting equipment of the parasite's body allows it to enter the host colony. 3. We searched for host morphological traits related to fighting ability that could be considered counter‐adaptations. As a host–parasite co‐evolutionary arms race can only occur where the two lineages co‐exist, we compared morphological traits of hosts belonging to populations with or without parasite pressure. We report that host foundresses belonging to populations under strong parasite pressure have a larger body size than those belonging to populations without parasite pressure. 4. Behavioural experiments carried out to test if an increase in host body size is useful to oppose parasite usurpation show that large body size foundresses exhibit a greater ability of nest defence.  相似文献
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