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1.
Neoseiulus barkeri (= Amblyseius mckenziei) and Amblyseius cucumeris (Acari:Phytoseiidae) are used as control agents of Thrips tabaci (Insecta:Thripidae) in greenhouse crops. Their success in capturing prey larval stages is related to both the feeding state of the predators and to the size of the larvae. When starved, predators are more successful in seizing larvae. Upon contact with a starved predator second stage prey larvae incur a lower death risk than first stage larvae. The larvae of T. tabaci reduce the attack success of their predators by jerking the abdomen and by producing a drop of rectal fluid. When this defensive behaviour is prevented by anaesthetising the larvae with CO2, predator attack success increases. Anaesthesia does not, however, level out the difference in death risk of the two larval stages. Conceivable causes for this discrepancy are discussed.Availability of suitable prey is dependent on the dynamics of the age structure of the prey population and, hence, may be lower than total thrips density suggests. If so, alternative food sources may be important to maintain the predator population.
Zusammenfassung Neoseiulus barkeri (= Amblyseius mckenziei) und Amblyseius cucumeris (Acari: Phytoseiidae) werden zur Bekämpfung von Thrips tabaci (Insecta: Thripidae) in Gewächshauskulturen eingesetzt. Sowohl der Ernährungszustand der räuberischen Milben als auch die Grösse der Thripslarven haben Einfluss auf das Ausmass der Beutenahme. Die Prädatoren sind erfolgreicher, wenn sie eine Zeitlang ohne Nahrung gehalten wurden. Beim Zusammentreffen mit einer ausgehungerten Raubmilbe besteht für Thripslarven des zweiten Stadiums ein geringeres Risiko erbeutet und gefressen zu werden als für Larven des ersten Stadiums. T. tabaci Larven mindern den Angriffserfolg der Prädatoren durch kräftiges Hin- und Herschlagen des Abdomens und durch Abgabe eines Tropfens Rektalflüssigkeit. Wird dieses Abwehrverhalten der Larven durch Anaästhesie mit CO2 verhindert, erhöht sich der Angriffserfolg der Prädatoren. Anästhesie nivelliert jedoch nicht das für beide Larvenstadien unterschiedlich hohe Risiko erbeutet zu werden. Mögliche Ursachen für diesen Unterschied werden diskutiert.Die Verfügbarkeit geeigneter Beutetiere hängt ab von der zeitlichen Entwicklung der Altersstruktur ihrer Population. Das Angebot an wirklich geeigneten Beutetieren kan also unter Umständen geringer sein, als dies die Gesamtthripsdichte zunächst vermuten lässt. Ist das der Fall, dürften alternative Nahrungsquellen für die Ernährung der Prädatorenpopulation wichtig sein.
  相似文献
2.
有益真绥螨与巴氏新小绥螨的集团内捕食和同类相残作用   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
【目的】有益真绥螨Euseius utilis是北方地区广泛分布的一种多食性植绥螨,而巴氏新小绥螨Neoseiulus barkeri目前在我国广泛应用于农业害虫的生物防治中。本研究旨在对巴氏新小绥螨在本地的应用进行风险评估及为与有益真绥螨的联合释放提供依据。【方法】本研究在室内通过一系列实验,比较了实验室饲养的巴氏新小绥螨和采自内蒙古农业大学校园的有益真绥螨的雌成螨对同种或异种未成熟螨的捕食量、存活时间及产卵量的差异,检测了有益真绥螨与巴氏新小绥螨两种植绥螨相互之间的攻击强度以及种内和种间的相互作用。【结果】两种植绥螨都难以刺吸同种或异种植绥螨的卵,而对同种或异种植绥螨幼螨的捕食量最大,其次是对若螨。在无共同食物的情况下,有益真绥螨雌成螨对同种植绥螨幼螨的攻击性比对异种植绥螨幼螨的攻击性强(BreslowDay检验:χ~2=13.84,df=1,P0.001),且有益真绥螨对同种植绥螨幼螨的捕食量(9.10±1.65头)高于对异种植绥螨幼螨的捕食量(5.31±1.43头)(T检验:t=5.487,P0.001),巴氏新小绥螨对异种植绥螨幼螨的捕食量(7.48±0.75头)高于对同种植绥螨幼螨的捕食量(4.75±0.58头)(T检验:t=9.110,P0.05)。【结论】有益真绥螨更倾向于捕食同种幼螨而发生同类相残;巴氏新小绥螨更倾向于捕食异种幼螨而发生集团内捕食。  相似文献
3.
两种植绥螨的同类相残和集团内捕食作用   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
巴氏新小绥螨(Neoseiulus barkeri)和黄瓜新小绥螨(N.cucumeris)是两种多食性植绥螨,主要捕食叶螨和蓟马等,目前在我国广泛应用于农业生物防治中.本文研究了这两种植绥螨种内的同类相残(cannibalism)和种间的集团内捕食作用(intraguild predation)以及相互之间的攻击强度,以明确两者之间的相互关系,为合理构建天敌组合及评估生物防治的作用提供依据.结果显示:两种植绥螨对同种或异种幼螨的捕食量最大,其次是若螨,而对卵的捕食量极低.两种植绥螨对异种幼螨或若螨的捕食量均极显著高于对同种幼螨或若螨的捕食量.可见,无其他猎物存在情况下,两种植绥螨同时发生时更倾向于发生种间的集团内捕食.而巴氏新小绥螨对异种幼螨或若螨的捕食量均高于黄瓜新小绥螨对异种幼螨或若螨的捕食量,并且巴氏新小绥螨和黄瓜新小绥螨相比,巴氏新小绥螨对异种幼螨的攻击性更强,因此当这两种植绥螨发生集团内捕食时,巴氏新小绥螨是潜在的集团内捕食者,而黄瓜新小绥螨是潜在的集团内猎物.  相似文献
4.
Ten predatory mite species, all phytoseiids, were evaluated for control of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on greenhouse cucumber. This study was done to further improve biological control of thrips on this crop. Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) is at present used for biological control of thrips in greenhouses. Compared to this species, Typhlodromalus limonicus (Garman & McGregor), Typhlodromips swirskii (Athias-Henriot) and Euseius ovalis (Evans) reached much higher population levels resulting in a significantly better control of thrips. T. limonicus was clearly the best predator of WFT. Also Euseius scutalis (Athias-Henriot) increased to higher populations levels than N. cucumeris, but without controlling the thrips, probably because of an unequal distribution of this predator on the plant. Iphiseius degenerans (Berlese), Neoseiulus barkeri (Hughes), Euseius finlandicus (Oudemans) and Typhlodromus pyri (Scheuten) did not establish better than N. cucumeris. A non-diapausing exotic strain of N. cucumeris did not differ from the North European strain. The best performers in this study were all of sub-tropical origin. T. limonicus, T. swirskii and E. ovalis have good potentials for controlling not only thrips but also whiteflies. Factors affecting the efficacy of phytoseiids on greenhouse cucumbers are discussed.  相似文献
5.
Generalist predatory mites are the common phytoseiid fauna in many agroecosystems, but little attention has been paid to their potential as biological control agents. In this study, we determined the functional responses of adult females of the generalist predator Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes on eggs, larvae, and adults of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, in the laboratory. Predation experiments were conducted on pepper leaf discs over a 24 h period at 25±1°C, 70–80% RH and 16L:8D photoperiod. Prey densities ranged 5 to 80 eggs, or 5 to 40 larvae, or 1 to 8 female adults of T. urticae per disc. The predation rate of N. barkeri adult females on T. urticae eggs was the same as on its larvae, but the predation rate on adult females was much lower. The role of generalist predatory mites in integrated and biological control of greenhouse pests was discussed.  相似文献
6.
Proteins and saccharides are the two most important nutrients of artificial insect diets. In this study, additional protein or saccharide sources were added to the diet, and their impact on the population increase of both the prey Tyrophagus putrescentiae Schrank (Acari: Acaridae) and the predator Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was investigated. T. putrescentiae population increased by 319, 317 and 180 times within six weeks, when yeast powder, glucose or sugar was added to the basic wheat bran diet (diet mass: additive mass 10:3), respectively. However, T. putrescentiae population increased by only 70 times when reared on the basic diet. All three types of nutrients resulted in increased soluble saccharide level of mixed stages T. putrescentiae. Significant increase of soluble protein level was observed when yeast powder was added. When fed on T. putrescentiae reared on yeast powder, glucose or sugar added diets, the developmental duration of N. barkeri was shortened by 23, 23 and 33%, and the daily fecundity increased by 40, 20 and 27%, respectively. The proportion of N. barkeri female offspring was 64% when fed with T. putrescentiae reared on wheat bran, increased to 70% when yeast powder was added, and decreased to 59% and 58% when glucose and sugar was added, respectively. The commercial packaging requirement of N. barkeri is 80 mites per g. It generally takes 40 days from N. barkeri inoculation to reach this requirement, but this period was dramatically shortened to 20, 25 and 24 days when yeast powder, sugar and glucose were added to the diet of T. putrescentiae, respectively.  相似文献
7.
【目的】研究巴氏新小绥螨Neoseiulus barkeri对柑桔全爪螨Panonychus citri及刺吸式昆虫为害柑桔叶片释放的挥发物的行为反应,揭示巴氏新小绥螨的嗅觉反应特点。【方法】采用GC-MS顶空进样法对枳橙叶片常见挥发性化合物、针刺枳橙叶片及其柑桔全爪螨雌成螨取食枳橙叶片挥发物进行定性分析,确定每类化合物的相对保留指数,构建枳橙叶片常见及受害挥发性化合物特征谱库。利用嗅觉测定技术分析巴氏新小绥螨对枳橙叶片挥发物的行为反应。【结果】针刺处理和柑桔全爪螨取食影响枳橙叶片挥发物的组成和含量。两种方法处理时枳橙叶片释放的主要物质为α-蒎烯、水芹烯、4-异丙基甲苯。随着处理加重,增量释放的物质为:cis-π-罗勒烯、月桂烯、柠檬烯、异松油烯,减量表达的物质为2-乙基-1-乙醇和十一烷。在10~(-2)、10~(-4)、10~(-6)和10~(-8)g/m L浓度下,正己醛、正壬醛、乙酸辛酯和正庚醛对巴氏新小绥螨有强烈的引诱作用(P>0.05);月桂烯在10~(-2)、10~(-4)和10~(-6)g/m L浓度下对巴氏新小绥螨有强烈的引诱作用(P>0.05);正壬醇和正辛醇随着浓度增加,对巴氏新小绥螨的引诱作用降低;苯甲醛对巴氏新小绥螨的引诱作用较弱。【结论】巴氏新小绥螨对柑桔全爪螨及刺吸式口器昆虫为害柑桔叶片释放出的挥发物各组分具有不同的行为反应,柑桔及其刺吸式害虫生境中的嗅觉线索在巴氏新小绥螨的寄主定位和生境选择中起着重要作用。  相似文献
8.
明确不同猎物及密度下巴氏新小绥螨Neoseiulus barkeri与拉戈钝绥螨Amblyseius largoensis(Muma)的同类相残和集团内捕食作用,为其协同应用控制橡胶树害螨提供依据.在室温27±1℃、湿度75%±5%、光周期12 L∶12D 条件下,以六点始叶螨 Eotetranvchus sexmaculatus(Riley)、比哈小爪螨Oligonychus biharen(Hirst)和东方真叶螨Eutetranychus orientalis(klein)为集团外猎物,观察巴氏新小绥螨和拉戈钝绥螨对集团内和集团外猎物的捕食选择行为,以及不同集团外猎物密度下两种捕食螨对同种和异种捕食螨的捕食作用.巴氏新小绥螨和拉戈钝绥螨对异种个体及集团外不同猎物的捕食偏好性及捕食时间存在明显差异.巴氏新小绥螨偏好取食集团外猎物,异种捕食螨拉戈钝绥螨残存率达到80.00%以上;拉戈钝绥螨偏好取食集团外猎物六点始叶螨和比哈小爪螨,而当东方真叶螨存在时,其更偏好取食异种捕食螨巴氏新小绥螨(残存率为26.67%);发生集团内捕食时,拉戈钝绥螨为集团内捕食者,而巴氏新小绥螨为集团内猎物.集团外猎物密度可显著影响巴氏新小绥螨和拉戈钝绥螨相残作用,尤以猎物六点始叶螨对巴氏新小绥螨和东方真叶螨对拉戈钝绥螨影响最为明显,其充足时比无猎物时捕食量分别下降了 68.85%和62.90%.巴氏新小绥螨和拉戈钝绥螨的集团内捕食分别以比哈小爪螨和六点始叶螨的影响最大,猎物充足时比无猎物时捕食量下降了 80.00%和69.44%,但拉戈钝绥螨在以东方真叶螨为猎物时集团内捕食受猎物密度影响较小,猎物充足时取食量与猎物不足时接近,比无猎物时捕食量只下降20.83%.集团外猎物六点始叶螨、比哈小爪螨存在时,巴氏新小绥螨和拉戈钝绥螨表现为偏好选择集团外猎物,密度增加对两种植绥螨的同类相残和集团内捕食作用有明显抑制作用,但东方真叶螨充足与否,拉戈钝绥螨对巴氏新小绥螨的集团内捕食作用影响差异不显著.  相似文献
9.
Biological control of Thrips tabaci by the phytoseiid mites Amblyseius cucumeris and Amblyseius barkeri was investigated on glasshouse parthenocarpic cucumbers. The mite species were used in combination and singly. Successful thrips control was obtained with A. cucumeris alone, whereas control was not reliable with A. barkeri alone nor with the combination of A. cucumeris and A. barkeri. The establishment period was long for both phytoseiid species. At the beginning of the trial, when thrips were absent or very low in numbers, only A. cucumeris was found on the leaves. Mite populations did not increase until the number of thrips were ca. two and five per leaf for A. cucumeris and A. barkeri, respectively. A. cucumeris seemed to show a better numerical response to T. tabaci than A. barkeri. At the end of the trial (three months after the last introduction of mites) only A. barkeri was found in the combination plot, indicating that A. cucumeris is displaced by A. barkeri in situations of interspecific competition between the two species on glasshouse parthenocarpic cucumbers.  相似文献
10.
利用捕食螨防治柑橘全爪螨Panonychus citri已有大面积应用,但捕食螨田间防治效果常受到果园使用化学农药的影响,相应配套技术是捕食螨应用的瓶颈问题。2010年6~10月,在广东省四会市罗源镇柑橘园,分别采用五种处理方式(常规化学农药;化学农药加巴氏新小绥螨Neoseiulus barkeri;单独使用矿物油乳剂;单独使用巴氏新小绥螨;矿物油乳剂加巴氏新小绥螨)防治柑橘全爪螨,设不采取任何防治措施的样地为对照。试验结果显示,各处理的种群干扰控制指数分别是3.7195、1.4942、0.2439、0.2053、0.0488,校正虫口减退率分别是-271.95%、-49.42%、75.61%、79.47%、95.12%。化学农药防治对柑橘全爪螨的控制作用不理想,影响了巴氏新小绥螨的持续控制作用;巴氏新小绥螨能较好地发挥对柑橘全爪螨的控制作用,矿物油乳剂表现出较好的长期控制效果,矿物油乳剂配合巴氏新小绥螨对柑橘全爪螨有较好的协同控制作用。  相似文献
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