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1.
切叶蚁亚科七属十二种的分子系统学研究   总被引:3,自引:2,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
陈振鹏  周善义 《昆虫学报》2007,50(4):395-404
 测定了切叶蚁亚科7属12种的线粒体CO1、CO2的部分基因及完整的tRNALeu基因DNA序列,对DNA序列进行了分析,对tRNALeu 基因进行了二级结构分析;根据DNA序列数据和氨基酸序列数据,以臭蚁亚科的Forelius chalybaeus作为外群,采用最大似然法(ML)、最大简约法(MP)、邻接法(NJ)、未加权组对算术平均法(UPGMA)构建分子系统树,通过自举检验,得到自举置信水平,以此检验该分子系统树的可靠性。研究结果显示,基于以上基因的分子系统分析与传统分类分析的结果基本一致,且在属级的一致性高于种级的一致性。  相似文献
2.
Pheidologeton diversus workers group-hunt (that is, search for food in raiding groups) and are in this way remarkably convergent with army ants (Dorylinae and Ecitoninae). Raids appear usually to take independent courses and are capable of tracking areas of high food density. However, raid advance is not dependent on continual food discovery at the raid front, since raids can advance over areas without food. Most raids extend from trunk trails, which originate when the basal trail of a raid remains in use even after the original raid has ceased. Trunk trails can last at least as long as 10 weeks, with the terrain and the distance to the nest influencing the trail stability. Territories are limited to the trail systems, with rich food items in particular being vigorously defended. Group hunting permits P. diversus to quickly harvest booty, usurp foods from competing species, and capture large prey. This strategy is compared with the raiding strategies of other ants. I hypothesize that group hunting originated from an ancestor which hunted solitarily from trunk trails through the acceleration of trail production and reduction in worker autonomy.  相似文献
3.
Abstract.  1. Analyses of ecological trade-offs help to explain how organisms balance competing demands. Harvester ants ( Pogonomyrmex occidentalis ), are conspicuous residents of shortgrass prairie in western North America; worker P. occidentalis actively clear all vegetation from the immediate vicinity of their large gravel mounds. This study is based on the prediction that vegetation clearing yields a thermal trade-off by increasing soil temperatures; during cool periods the resulting increase in soil temperature opens new time windows for activity, while during hot periods the soil temperature is more likely to exceed the maximum thermal tolerance for this species. To test the hypothesis that daily and seasonal trade-offs in ant activity result from vegetation removal, the effects of experimentally applied shade on activity patterns were measured.
2. Harvester ant activity correlated highly with ground temperature; experimental shading of ant mounds shifted daily activity patterns by lowering ground temperature. Shading in the morning significantly delayed the onset of ant activity by preventing solar warming of the mound. In contrast, mid-day experimental shading prevented elevation of ground temperatures to above 50 °C and allowed ants to remain active when lethally high temperatures would normally force them inside the mound.
3. A model derived from field data predicted surface ground temperature (and therefore ant activity) based on air temperature and solar radiation, under conditions of sun and shade. For each of six seasons modelled, shade removal yielded a net gain of activity time. These results indicate that vegetation removal by harvester ants produces an advantageous thermoregulatory effect by helping to maximise activity time.  相似文献
4.
The genus Pogonomyrmex is one of three ant genera with an effective mating frequency (me) > 2.0. We developed microsatellites to determine me for P. rugosus because mating frequency of P. rugosus was known only from observational data which do not allow an estimate of me. We genotyped 474 workers from 20 colonies for two microsatellite loci. Observed mating frequencies ranged from 3 to 12 and me for P. rugosus was 4.71. Observed patriline frequencies were significantly different from the expected patriline frequencies generated with a simulated data set under the assumption of equal patriline representation. The available mating frequency data and phylogenetic information of the genus Pogonomyrmex suggest that multiple mating is the ancestral state in the North American Pogonomyrmex sensu stricto. Established P. rugosus colonies raid and destroy smaller conspecific colonies. During these raids ant workers were observed carrying pupae and larvae from the raided colony into the nest of the raiding colony. However, it was not clear whether raided brood emerged in the raiding colony and were subsequently recruited into the work force (intraspecific slavery) or were used as food (predation). Our analyses indicate 6 of 14 field colonies contained foreign P. rugosus workers (43%). The range of the intracolonial frequency of foreign workers collected directly from the nest entrance was between 4 and 28%.  相似文献
5.
Abstract. Although the presence of small amounts of 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine (EDMP) has been reported in the poison gland of the Pheidole pallidula minor workers, this substance is not the true trail pheromone of this ant. This pyrazine acts as an attractant and a locostimulant. Appropriate solvent extractions and thin-layer chromatography of poison glands, together with trail bioassays, have shown that another substance acts as the trail pheromone. Furthermore, there seems to be an auxiliary pheromone, acting as a synergist; this might be EDMP.  相似文献
6.
GC–MS analysis of whole head extracts from the turtle ants, Cephalotes alfaroi and Cephalotes cristatus, showed that 4-heptanone and 4-heptanol were the major volatile components in the mandibular glands. 4-Heptanone and 4-heptanol have rarely been identified in mandibular gland secretions from other ant genera. Thus, these compounds may be chemotaxonomic markers for the genus Cephalotes, since they have been identified in the mandibular glands from all members of this genus that have been investigated to date. Minor components identified in the whole head extracts of these ants were 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-heptanone, 3-hexanol, 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acids, 2-methyl-4-heptanone, 2-phenylethanol and phenol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 2-methyl-4-heptanone and phenol have been reported in the mandibular gland secretion from any Formicid.  相似文献
7.
描述陕西佛坪红蚁属1新种,即郑氏红蚁Myrmica zhengi sp.nov.。新种体色极浅;头部正面观方形;前中胸背板刻纹横形,但极不规则;并胸腹节刺粗壮,基部宽;后腹第1节背板基侧具明显细纵刻纹与近似种类相区别。模式标本保存于陕西师范大学动物研究所,副模标本分存于广西师范大学生命科学学院、西北农林科技大学昆虫博物馆、东北师范大学生命科学学院和西南林业大学标本馆昆虫标本室。  相似文献
8.
Detailed measurements on nest architecture and colony size of the fungus-growing ant Mycetophylax simplex Emery, 1888 (Formicidae, Attini) are reported for the first time, based on excavations of 55 nests from two sites in southern Brazil. All nests were subterranean, with a single entrance hole. Most nests consisted of two chambers, an upper and a lower chamber, but one and three-chamber nests were also found. The chambers were more cone-shaped than rounded, and located at a depth ranging from 4.0 cm to 32.5 cm below the nest entrance. The chamber dimensions generally increased as the depth of the chambers increased, and the lower chamber was mostly wider than the upper one. The fungus garden was always found resting on the chamber floor. The average colony size was 264.1 workers, ranging from 67 to 610 workers. Colonies produced most sexuals during the summer (from December to March) and a few during the winter (July). Direct observations showed that colonies were mostly monogynous, but more than one queen was recorded in two nests, suggesting that polygyny may also occur in this species. Received 30 November 2006; revised 20 April 2007; accepted 23 April 2007.  相似文献
9.
The ant genus Solenopsis Westwood 1840, is recorded for the first time in Saudi Arabia. The worker caste of S. saudiensis n. sp., collected in Riyadh is described and illustrated. This resembles S. cooperi Donisthorpe 1947, and S. kochi Finzi 1936. A revised key to the Arabian species is given together with ecological and biological notes. S. saudiensis n. sp. is identified by the following characters: Anterior clypeal margin with a central pair of stout projecting teeth and a lateral pair of short, broad basal blunt teeth; eyes with two minute facets; funicular segments 2–7 about twice as wide as long; propodeum short and low with the basal face making a continuous arc with the declivity; and petiole as long as broad in dorsal view.  相似文献
10.
An ant species, Cardiocondyla gibbosa Kuznetzov-Ugamsky, 1927, is newly recorded from China. The specimens were collected from Shule County of Kashgar, Xinjiang(39°14′N, 76° 22′E; elev. 1 248 m). All the specimens are kept in Institute of Zoology, Shaanxi Normal University. A key based on worker caste to known species of Cardiocondyla from China is provided.  相似文献
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