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1.
M.H. Baron 《Differentiation》2001,68(4-5):175-185
Blood and vascular endothelial cells form in all vertebrates during gastrulation, a process in which the mesoderm of the embryo is induced and then patterned by molecules whose identity is still largely unknown. Blood islands' of primitive hematopoietic cell clusters surrounded by a layer of endothelial cells form in the yolk sac, external to the developing embryo proper. These lineages arise from a layer of extraembryonic mesoderm that is closely apposed with a layer of primitive (visceral) endoderm. Despite the identification of genes such as Flk1, SCL/tal-1, Cbfa2/Runx1/AML1 and CD34 that are expressed during the induction of primitive hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis, the early molecular and cellular events involved in these processes are not well understood. Recent work has demonstrated that extracellular signals secreted by visceral endoderm surrounding the embryo are essential for the initiation of these events. A member of the Hedgehog family of signaling molecules (Indian hedgehog) is produced by visceral endoderm, can induce formation of blood and endothelial cells in explant cultures and can reprogram prospective neurectoderm along hematopoietic and endothelial cell lineages. Hedgehog proteins also stimulate proliferation of definitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. These findings may have important implications for regulating hematopoiesis and vascular development for therapeutic purposes in humans and for the development of new sources of stem cells for transplantation and gene therapy.  相似文献
2.
小鼠胚胎与子宫单层上皮细胞共培养的研究   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
本文报道建立了小鼠胚胎与小鼠子宫单层上皮细胞体外共培养系统。结果揭示;小鼠胚胎与 子宫单层上皮细胞共培养可以促进胚胎的发育、粘附和扩展;如果培养液中加入 3、67 × 10-6mol/L 17β-雌二醇,可以显著提高胚胎在共培养系统中的发育率、粘附率和扩展率。以上结果表明:小鼠 胚胎与小鼠子宫单层上皮细胞共培养系统是研究胚泡着床机理较理想的研究手段。  相似文献
3.
不同品系小鼠胚胎玻璃化冷冻保存的比较研究   总被引:11,自引:1,他引:10  
目的 研究甘油作为冷冻保护剂、不同基因型小鼠对胚胎玻璃化冷冻的影响。方法 采用 6 5mol L的甘油作为冷冻保护剂 ,采用二步法对CBA、NOD、C57BL 6J、ICR及CD1小鼠 3 5d的胚胎进行玻璃化冷冻 ,并比较了不同品系小鼠胚胎的复苏率及移植受孕率。结果和结论 CBA、NOD、C57BL 6J,ICR及CD1的复苏率分别为 5 7 6 %、4 8%、31 3%、86 5 %及 88% ,移植受孕率为 2 1%、2 3 5 %、11%、38%和 35 5 % ,封闭群小鼠的胚胎复苏率、移植受孕率均显著高于近交系小鼠。这提示胚胎的复苏率及移植受孕率可能与小鼠的不同基因型有关。五个品系中 ,桑椹胚及早期囊胚的体外复苏率均显著高于扩张囊胚。这说明不同基因型及胚胎的不同发育阶段对胚胎玻璃化冷冻效果有影响  相似文献
4.
The role of gap junction membrane channels in development   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
In most developmental systems, gap junction-mediated cell-cell communication (GJC) can be detected from very early stages of embryogenesis. This usually results in the entire embryo becoming linked as a syncytium. However, as development progresses, GJC becomes restricted at discrete boundaries, leading to the subdivision of the embryo into communication compartment domains. Analysis of gap junction gene expression suggests that this functional subdivision of GJC may be mediated by the differential expression of the connexin gene family. The temporal-spatial pattern of connexin gene expression during mouse embryogenesis is highly suggestive of a role for gap junctions in inductive interactions, being regionally restricted in distinct developmentally significant domains. Using reverse genetic approaches to manipulate connexin gene function, direct evidence has been obtained for the connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction gene playing a role in mammalian development. The challenges in the future are the identification of the target cell populations and the cell signaling processes in which Cx43-mediated cell-cell interactions are critically required in mammalian development. Our preliminary observations suggest that neural crest cells may be one such cell population.  相似文献
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6.
小鼠的胚胎移植方法   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10       下载免费PDF全文
全面而详细地描述了小鼠胚胎移植中所采用的输卵管移植及子宫移植方法,包括作者的改进。介绍了寄母小鼠的选择、配种及孕鼠的编号方法等,具有较强的实用意义。  相似文献
7.
The use of embryonic stem (ES) cells for generating healthy tissues has the potential to revolutionize therapies for human disease or injury, for which there are currently no effective treatments. Strategies for manipulating stem cell differentiation should be based on knowledge of the mechanisms by which lineage decisions are made during early embryogenesis. Here, we review current research into the factors influencing lineage differentiation in the mouse embryo and the application of this knowledge to in vitro differentiation of ES cells. In the mouse embryo, specification of tissue lineages requires cell-cell interactions that are influenced by coordinated cell migration and cellular neighborhood mediated by the key WNT, FGF, and TGFbeta signaling pathways. Mimicking the cellular interactions of the embryo by providing appropriate signaling molecules in culture has enabled the differentiation of ES cells to be directed predominately toward particular lineages. Multistep strategies incorporating the provision of soluble factors known to influence lineage choices in the embryo, coculture with other cells or tissues, genetic modification, and selection for desirable cell types have allowed the production of ES cell derivatives that produce beneficial effects in animal models. Increasing the efficiency of this process can only result from a better understanding of the molecular control of cell lineage determination in the embryo.  相似文献
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BACKGROUND: Previous work has shown that teratogens such as hyperthermia (HS), 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4CP), and staurosporine (ST) induce cell death in day 9 mouse embryos by activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Key to the activation of this pathway is the activation of a caspase cascade involving the cleavage-induced activation of an initiator procaspase, caspase-9, and the downstream effector procaspase, caspase-3. For example, procaspase-3, an inactive proenzyme of 32 kDa is cleaved by activated caspase-9 to generate a large subunit of approximately 17 kDa and a small subunit of approximately 10 kDa. In turn, caspase-3 is known to target a variety of cellular proteins for proteolytic cleavage as part of the process by which dying cells are eliminated. Previous work has also shown that neuroepithelial cells are sensitive to teratogen-induced activation of this pathway and subsequent cell death whereas cells of the heart are resistant. Although caspase-3 is a key effector caspase activated by teratogens, two other effector caspases, caspase-6 and caspase-7, are known; however, their role in teratogen-induced cell death is unknown. METHODS: Because cleavage-induced generation of specific subunits is the most specific assay for activation of caspases, we have used antibodies that recognize the procaspase and one of its active subunits and a Western blot approach to assess the activation of caspase-6 and caspase-7 in day 9 mouse embryos (or heads, hearts and trunks isolated from whole embryos) exposed to HS, 4CP, and ST. To probe the relationship between teratogen-induced activation of caspase-9/caspase-3 and the activation of caspase-6/caspase-7, we used a mitochondrial-free embryo lysate with or without the addition of cytochrome c, recombinant active caspase-3, or recombinant active caspase-9. RESULTS: Western blot analyses show that these three teratogens, HS, 4CP, and ST, induce the activation of procaspase-6 (appearance of the 13 kDa subunit, p13) and caspase-7 (appearance of the 19 kDa subunit, p19) in day 9 mouse embryos. In vitro studies showed that both caspase-6 and caspase-7 could be activated by the addition of cytochrome c to a lysate prepared from untreated embryos. In addition, caspase-6 could be activated by the addition of either recombinant caspase-3 or caspase-9 to a lysate prepared from untreated embryos. In contrast, caspase-7 could be activated by addition of recombinant caspase-3 but only minimally by recombinant caspase-9. Like caspase-9/caspase-3, caspase-6 and caspase-7 were not activated in hearts isolated from embryos exposed to these three teratogens. CONCLUSIONS: HS, 4CP and ST induce the cleavage-dependent activation of caspase-6 and caspase-7 in day 9 mouse embryos. Results using DEVD-CHO, a caspase-3 inhibitor, suggest that teratogen-induced activation of caspase-6 is mediated by caspase-3. In addition, our data suggest that caspase-7 is activated primarily by caspase-3; however, we cannot rule out the possibility that this caspase is also activated by caspase-9. Finally, we also show that teratogen-induced activation of caspase-6 and caspase-7 are blocked in the heart, a tissue resistant to teratogen-induced cell death.  相似文献
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