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1.
几何形态测量法在生物形态学研究中的应用   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
白明  杨星科 《昆虫知识》2007,44(1):143-147
形态分析是生物系统学及其多样性研究中很重要的一部分。随着统计学的发展,我们可以对非常复杂的数据进行分析,这在客观上导致了多变量形态测量的出现。在20世纪80年代,在数据收集和分析上产生了重要突破——标点和标点相对位置的几何信息的匹配,从而可以将多变量分析的标点集叠加到生物原始图上,它不仅仅是生成散点图,而是试图客观反映生物的形态性状。这项研究被称为几何形态测量法(geometricmorphometrics),Rohlf和Marcus(1993)称其为形态测量方法上的一次革命。文章简要介绍了该方法。  相似文献
2.
Morphological Measurement and Analysis of Gymnarchus Niloticus   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Gymnarchus niloticus swims by undulations of a long-based dorsal fin, while its body axis is in many cases held straight during swimming. This paper provides a brief relevant introduction to Gymnarchus niloticus , which belongs to the African freshwater electric eels but can inspire our bionic interests in propulsion besides its abilities in electric sensing. A special larva of Gymnarchus niloticus was morphologically measured by photographing it with a piece of scale-calibrated paper as the background. Then we analyzed the data by a CFD-aided approach. Detailed flow patterns around the larva and a NACA0012 hydrofoil were respectively calculated and visualized at the Reynolds number of 7350 or so. The results show that the profile of Gymnarchus niloticus is well streamlined.  相似文献
3.
花鼠外部形态及部分内脏器官的测量和分析   总被引:3,自引:2,他引:1  
对捕捉的花鼠进行了外部形态和内脏器官的测量和分析,结果表明:外部形态和内脏器官的变异系数较大,各器官之间存在着显著的相关关系;不同年龄组间外部形态和内脏器官的大小存在着显著差异,同年龄组不同性别间差异不显著。  相似文献
4.
Sexual dimorphism and allometry in two seed beetles (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Male Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) have elaborated, pectinate antennae, which are absent from conspecific females and both sexes of a congener, Callosobruchus maculatus. To begin to unravel the mechanisms producing this striking dimorphism, we examined which morphological traits best explain body size variation in bruchid beetles and quantified sexual dimorphism of antenna size through allometric analyses. Using principal component analyses, we found that elytron length and pronotum width were significantly correlated with the first principal component, which was interpreted as explaining variation in body size. Regressions of log‐transformed body size measures on log‐transformed antenna length revealed that males of both species had longer antennae than conspecific females for any given body size, although most of this effect was attributable to higher intercepts, rather than increased allometry, in males. Comparisons among heterospecific males revealed that C. maculatus males have noticeably longer antennae than C. chinensis males at large body sizes. Callosobruchus chinensis males, thus, appear to have increased the receptive area of their antennae by adding to the width of, rather than further elongating, their antennae. Finally, we found evidence for positive allometry between log‐transformed antenna length and log‐transformed antenna width in C. chinensis males. We discuss our results in the context of evidence supporting the presence of an additional, and potentially unique, sex pheromone in C. chinensis females.  相似文献
5.
A series of 2-deoxy-d-glucose resistant mutants was obtained from wild type Beauveria bassiana 88 (Bb 88) by UV irradiation. Five mutants were characterized on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and Chitin Agar for both radial extension rate (Vr) and specific growth rate (μ). These values were obtained after adjusting morphometric data to a mathematical model used for filamentous fungi. Additionally, the protease and lipase potency index, conidial size, viability, and production levels were analyzed. The highest values for those physiological measurements were obtained by mutant 882.5 which, relative to Bb 88, showed a 30% reduction in half-life (LT50) on Sphenarium purpurascens, 70% on Acheta domesticus, and 71% on Tenebrio molitor larvae and adults. The half lethal concentration (LC50) on T. molitor larvae was 2.8 × 105 conidia/mL (con/mL) and 1.5 × 106 con/mL, respectively, for mutant 882.5 and Bb 88. This demonstrates that mutant 882.5 is more virulent, with up to an 80% reduction in LC50. This work provides a convenient method for improving strains to be used in biocontrol as a suitable alternative to transgenic constructs.  相似文献
6.
声信号是鸟类交流的重要方式。鸟类的鸣声特征受到生境的塑造和性选择,也受到发声器官的影响,如种间的比较研究发现,体重大的鸟类鸣声频率低,喙短的鸟类鸣声频宽大。在种内是否也存在类似的规律,目前的结论还不一致。2012年6月,在北京小龙门地区(40°00'N,115°26'E)测量了17只灰眉岩鹀(Emberiza godlewskii)的形态参数以及鸣声的频率特征,未发现体重或喙长与鸣声的最高频率、最低频率、峰频或频宽存在显著的相关性。本研究的结果支持在小型雀形目鸟类中,体型对繁殖期鸣唱频率特征的影响不显著。  相似文献
7.
阮祥锋  溪波 《动物学杂志》2011,46(5):146-150
发冠卷尾(Dicrurus hottentottus)由于被认为是雌雄同态而在野外难以鉴别性别。我们研究了河南董寨国家级自然保护区79只已用分子生物学方法鉴定出性别的发冠卷尾(D.h.brevirostris)在形态量度上的性别差异,并据此构建了判别式方程,用于鉴定其性别。所考察的体征包括体重、喙长、喙粗、头喙长、跗跖长、翅长、尾长、体长、发羽数、第一根发羽长、第二根发羽长、第三根发羽长和三根发羽的平均长度。研究发现,雌性与雄性发冠卷尾的喙粗、头喙长、跗跖长、翅长、尾长、发羽数和第一根发羽长均存在显著差异(均P<0.05),雄性一般大于雌性。利用具有显著差异的形态量度分别构建判别方程来区分个体性别,发现以翅长构建的判别方程具有最高的平均判别准确性,达81.0%。该方程对雌性的判别准确性略低于多变量判别方程,因此我们推荐使用该判别方程对发冠卷尾的性别进行鉴定,即D(判别分数)=0.239×翅长-40.359。  相似文献
8.
采用扫描电镜和光学显微镜观察了采自我国的蟾蜍属(Bufo)7种(亚种)的精子形态,对精子各部位量度进行了测量和计算。结果表明,该属7种(亚种)精子的形态基本相同,精子由头部、中片和尾部组成,头部细长微弯且前端渐尖,中片有球状突起,尾部长,由轴纤维、轴丝和波动膜构成。与已有报道的两栖动物的精子形态相比较,蟾蜍属精子与无尾类其他科精子形态差别较大,而与有尾类精子形态相似。本文认为两栖动物精子形态和量度在科间存在明显差异;两栖动物精子形态的差异可能与其繁殖模式有关。  相似文献
9.
对在内蒙古自治区新巴尔虎右旗猎捕到的蒙原羚(Procapragutturosa)亚成体的外部形态及消化道若干指标进行了测量及分析,结果表明,蒙原羚亚成体的体重平均为27.47kg,体长平均为105.37cm,尾长平均为10.94cm,肩高平均为56.55cm。蒙原羚亚成体胃(含胃容物)的总重为5.26kg,占体重的19.15%;瘤胃(含胃容物)重(平均3.81kg)占胃总重的72.43%;肠道总长为2708.86cm,是体长的25·71倍;小肠总长为1909.87cm,占肠道总长的70.50%;大肠总长为798.99cm,占肠道总长的29.50%。蒙原羚亚成体兼有精饲者和粗饲者的特征。  相似文献
10.
动物中普遍存在雌雄个体身体大小的性二态现象。了解近缘种之间身体大小性二态现象的差异,可为深入探讨身体大小性二态现象的潜在驱动机制提供证据。国外对欧亚大山雀(Parus major)的研究发现,其喙长、跗跖长、翅长等 6 项身体大小指标存在着明显的性二态,且喙长的性二态存在季节间差异。大山雀(P. cinereus)曾被作为欧亚大山雀的一个亚种,其形态和行为与欧亚大山雀存在着诸多相似之处。为探讨大山雀是否也存在身体大小性二态及季节性差异,本研究分析了 2018 至 2020 年间在河南董寨国家级自然保护区捕捉的 226 只(雌性 96 只和雄性 130 只)大山雀的喙长、头喙长、跗跖长、翅长、尾长和体长这 6 项体征指标的两性差异及其季节变化。结果显示,大山雀上述 6 项身体大小指标均存在不同程度的性二态现象,且雄性个体仅喙长与雌性的差异不显著,其余 5 项指标均显著大于雌性。此外,身体大小指标的两性差异不随季节显著变化,但两性的跗跖长在秋季均显著短于冬季和繁殖季,尾长在繁殖季均显著长于秋季和冬季。上述结果表明,大山雀身体大小的性二态及其季节性差异与欧亚大山雀并不完全相似。无论其身体大小存在性二态和季节变化的原因,还是其与欧亚大山雀在身体大小性二态模式上的差别,都有待今后进一步的研究。  相似文献
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