首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   2314篇
  国内免费   17篇
  完全免费   239篇
  2019年   11篇
  2018年   44篇
  2017年   27篇
  2016年   40篇
  2015年   53篇
  2014年   96篇
  2013年   91篇
  2012年   87篇
  2011年   106篇
  2010年   83篇
  2009年   143篇
  2008年   133篇
  2007年   143篇
  2006年   153篇
  2005年   133篇
  2004年   135篇
  2003年   112篇
  2002年   95篇
  2001年   104篇
  2000年   87篇
  1999年   81篇
  1998年   79篇
  1997年   61篇
  1996年   63篇
  1995年   71篇
  1994年   46篇
  1993年   53篇
  1992年   39篇
  1991年   44篇
  1990年   27篇
  1989年   30篇
  1988年   31篇
  1987年   20篇
  1986年   15篇
  1985年   17篇
  1984年   8篇
  1983年   1篇
  1982年   1篇
  1981年   4篇
  1979年   1篇
  1978年   1篇
  1976年   1篇
排序方式: 共有2570条查询结果,搜索用时 78 毫秒
1.
Evolution of the cytochromeb gene of mammals   总被引:98,自引:0,他引:98  
Summary With the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and versatile primers that amplify the whole cytochromeb gene (∼ 1140 bp), we obtained 17 complete gene sequences representing three orders of hoofed mammals (ungulates) and dolphins (cetaceans). The fossil record of some ungulate lineages allowed estimation of the evolutionary rates for various components of the cytochromeb DNA and amino acid sequences. The relative rates of substitution at first, second, and third positions within codons are in the ratio 10 to 1 to at least 33. For deep divergences (>5 million years) it appears that both replacements and silent transversions in this mitochondrial gene can be used for phylogenetic inference. Phylogenetic findings include the association of (1) cetaceans, artiodactyls, and perissodactyls to the exclusion of elephants and humans, (2) pronghorn and fallow deer to the exclusion of bovids (i. e., cow, sheep, and goat), (3) sheep and goat to the exclusion of other pecorans (i. e., cow, giraffe, deer, and pronghorn), and (4) advanced ruminants to the exclusion of the chevrotain and other artiodactyls. Comparisons of these cytochromeb sequences support current structure-function models for this membrane-spanning protein. That part of the outer surface which includes the Qo redox center is more constrained than the remainder of the molecule, namely, the transmembrane segments and the surface that protrudes into the mitochondrial matrix. Many of the amino acid replacements within the transmembrane segments are exchanges between hydrophobic residues (especially leucine, isoleucine, and valine). Replacement changes at first and second positions of codons approximate a negative binomial distribution, similar to other protein-coding sequences. At four-fold degenerate positions of codons, the nucleotide substitutions approximate a Poisson distribution, implying that the underlying mutational spectrum is random with respect to position.  相似文献
2.
3.
Dating of the human-ape splitting by a molecular clock of mitochondrial DNA   总被引:63,自引:0,他引:63  
Summary A new statistical method for estimating divergence dates of species from DNA sequence data by a molecular clock approach is developed. This method takes into account effectively the information contained in a set of DNA sequence data. The molecular clock of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was calibrated by setting the date of divergence between primates and ungulates at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (65 million years ago), when the extinction of dinosaurs occurred. A generalized leastsquares method was applied in fitting a model to mtDNA sequence data, and the clock gave dates of 92.3±11.7, 13.3±1.5, 10.9±1.2, 3.7±0.6, and 2.7±0.6 million years ago (where the second of each pair of numbers is the standard deviation) for the separation of mouse, gibbon, orangutan, gorilla, and chimpanzee, respectively, from the line leading to humans. Although there is some uncertainty in the clock, this dating may pose a problem for the widely believed hypothesis that the bipedal creatureAustralopithecus afarensis, which lived some 3.7 million years ago at Laetoli in Tanzania and at Hadar in Ethiopia, was ancestral to man and evolved after the human-ape splitting. Another likelier possibility is that mtDNA was transferred through hybridization between a proto-human and a protochimpanzee after the former had developed bipedalism.  相似文献
4.
中国部分黄牛品种mtDNA遗传多态性研究   总被引:50,自引:4,他引:46  
对我国8个黄牛品种22个个体的mtDNA D-loop区910bp全序列进行了分析。结果表明:8个黄牛品种D-loop区序列中,A T平均含量为61.65%;经比对,共检测到66个核苷酸多态位点,约占核苷酸总数的7.25%;D-loop全序列突变类型有5种,即转换、颠换、插入、缺失及转换与颠换共存,它们分别占核苷酸多态位点的81.82%、6.06%、7.57%、3.03%及1.52%。以欧洲牛mtDNA D-loop全序列为标准,8个黄牛群体D-loop的平均核苷酸变异率分3个层次:西镇牛、蒙古牛、黑白花牛及秦川牛的核苷酸变异率最低,分别为0.37%、0.44%、0.52%和0.66%;南阳牛与郏县红牛的核苷酸变异率居中,分别为1.91%和2.02%;晋南牛与岳阳牛的核苷酸变异率最高,分别为4.47%和4.73%。中国黄牛品种内D-loop区序列歧异度为0.55%~5.39%,品种间序列歧异度为1.21%~6.59%。在所测黄牛个体中,mtDNA D-loop序列由19种单倍型组成,单倍型比例为86.36%,说明中国黄牛mtDNA遗传多态性很丰富。由此构建了中国8个黄牛品种的NJ分子系统树,聚类分析表明:所测黄牛的mtDNA D-loop序列表现为3个单倍型组,从而揭示中国黄牛可能有3个母系起源,以普通牛起源和瘤牛起源为主。  相似文献
5.
Structure and evolution of teleost mitochondrial control regions   总被引:50,自引:0,他引:50  
We amplified and sequenced the mitochondrial control region from 23 species representing six families of teleost fish. The length of this segment is highly variable among even closely related species due to the presence of tandemly repeated sequences and large insertions. The position of the repetitive sequences suggests that they arise during replication both near the origin of replication and at the site of termination of the D-loop strand. Many of the conserved sequence blocks (CSBs) observed in mammals are also found among fish. In particular, the mammalian CSB-D is present in all of the fish species studied. Study of potential secondary structures of RNAs from the conserved regions provides little insight into the functional constraints on these regions. The variable structure of these control regions suggests that particular care should be taken to identify the most appropriate segment for studies of intraspecific variation. Correspondence to: T.D. Kocher  相似文献
6.
线粒体DNA序列特点与昆虫系统学研究   总被引:49,自引:9,他引:40  
昆虫线粒体DNA是昆虫分子系统学研究中应用最为广泛的遗传物质之一,线粒体DNA具有进化速率较核DNA快,遗传过程不发生基因重组,倒位,易位等突变,并且遵守严格的母系遗传方式等特点,本文概述了mtDNA中的rRNA,tRNA,蛋白编码基因和非编码区的一般属性,分析了它们在昆虫分子系统学研究中的应用价值。以及应用DNA序列数据来推导分类阶(单)元的系统发育关系时,基因或DNA片段选择的重要性。  相似文献
7.
自由基对线粒体DNA的氧化损伤与衰老   总被引:41,自引:0,他引:41       下载免费PDF全文
自由基是一类氧化剂,对生物具有多种损害作用.衰老的自由基学说是有关衰老机理的诸多学说之一.线粒体DNA组成结构特殊,易受自由基攻击;目前认为,线粒体DNA的氧化损伤是自由基引起衰老的分子基础.  相似文献
8.
A new method for calculating evolutionary substitution rates   总被引:38,自引:0,他引:38  
Summary In this paper we present a new method for analysing molecular evolution in homologous genes based on a general stationary Markov process. The elaborate statistical analysis necessary to apply the method effectively has been performed using Monte Carlo technqiues. We have applied our method to the silent third position of the codon of the five mitochondrial genes coding for identified proteins of four mammalian species (rat, mouse, cow and man). We found that the method applies satisfactorily to the three former species, while the last appears to be outside the scope of the present approach. The method allows one to calculate the evolutionarily effective silent substitution rate (vs) for mitochondrial genes, which in the species mentioned above is 1.4×10–8 nucleotide substitutions per site per year. We have also determined the divergence time ratios between the couples mousecow/rat-mouse and rat-cow/rat-mouse. In both cases this value is approximately 1.4.  相似文献
9.
The incomplete natural history of mitochondria   总被引:35,自引:0,他引:35  
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been used to study molecular ecology and phylogeography for 25 years. Much important information has been gained in this way, but it is time to reflect on the biology of the mitochondrion itself and consider opportunities for evolutionary studies of the organelle itself and its ecology, biochemistry and physiology. This review has four sections. First, we review aspects of the natural history of mitochondria and their DNA to show that it is a unique molecule with specific characteristics that differ from nuclear DNA. We do not attempt to cover the plethora of differences between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA; rather we spotlight differences that can cause significant bias when inferring demographic properties of populations and/or the evolutionary history of species. We focus on recombination, effective population size and mutation rate. Second, we explore some of the difficulties in interpreting phylogeographical data from mtDNA data alone and suggest a broader use of multiple nuclear markers. We argue that mtDNA is not a sufficient marker for phylogeographical studies if the focus of the investigation is the species and not the organelle. We focus on the potential bias caused by introgression. Third, we show that it is not safe to assume a priori that mtDNA evolves as a strictly neutral marker because both direct and indirect selection influence mitochondria. We outline some of the statistical tests of neutrality that can, and should, be applied to mtDNA sequence data prior to making any global statements concerning the history of the organism. We conclude with a critical examination of the neglected biology of mitochondria and point out several surprising gaps in the state of our knowledge about this important organelle. Here we limelight mitochondrial ecology, sexually antagonistic selection, life-history evolution including ageing and disease, and the evolution of mitochondrial inheritance.  相似文献
10.
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号