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1.
规律短音中极短间隔短音诱发的失匹配负电位   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
姜德鸣 Paavi.  P 《生理学报》1994,46(6):561-567
失匹配负电位是听觉事件相关电位的一个成分,它由一系列重复的,同性质的“标准刺激”的物理性质稍有偏离的“偏差刺激”所诱发,在规律性的标准刺激中,偶然的物理性质稍有偏离的刺激,如频率,强度,久度等的些微变化均可诱发MMN。偶然地给于时间上“过早出现”的同样刺激,即频率,强度,久度完全相同,只是在规律性的标准刺激中过早地出现的刺激,作为偏差刺激,也可以诱发出NNM。本研究在恒定刺激间隔ISI=600ms  相似文献
2.
对刺激朝向改变的自动加工:事件相关电位的证据   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
利用事件相关电位(ERP)技术,探讨非注意状态的刺激朝向改变是否引起自动加工。刺激为具有一定朝向(垂直和水平各50%)和一定空间频率(低频90%,高频10%)的光栅。要求被试忽略光栅朝向,对高频光栅作反应。刺激呈现时间为50ms,刺激间隔在250至450ms之间随机变化。低频光栅刺激被分为两类,“匹配”(与前一刺激朝向相同)和“失匹配”(与前一刺激朝向不同)。结果发现,失匹配刺激比匹配刺激诱发出更大的枕区P1、更大的前额-中央区N1以及更大的前部与顶区P2,但前部与顶区的N2却更小。这些ERPs变化提示,视觉对非注意的刺激朝向变化进行了一定程度的自动加工;视觉通道可能存在类似听觉失匹配负波(MMN)的、然而机制不同的自动加工成分  相似文献
3.
Mismatch negativity of ERP in cross-modal attention   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
Event-related potentials were measured in 12 healthy youth subjects aged 19-22 using the paradigm "cross-modal and delayed response" which is able to improve unattended purity and to avoid the effect of task target on the deviant components of ERP. The experiment included two conditions: (i) Attend visual modality, ignore auditory modality; (ii) attend auditory modality, ignore visual modality. The stimuli under the two conditions were the same. The difference wave was obtained by subtracting ERPs of the standard stimuli from that of the deviant stim-uli. The present results showed that mismatch negativity (MMN), N2b and P3 components can be produced in the auditory and visual modalities under attention condition. However, only MMN was observed in the two modalities un-der inattention condition. Auditory and visual MMN have some features in common: their largest MMN wave peaks were distributed respectively over their primary sensory projection areas of the scalp under attention condition, but over front  相似文献
4.
Dog cognition research tends to rely on behavioural response, which can be confounded by obedience or motivation, as the primary means of indexing dog cognitive abilities. A physiological method of measuring dog cognitive processing would be instructive and could complement behavioural response. Electroencephalogram (EEG) has been used in humans to study stimulus processing, which results in waveforms called event-related potentials (ERPs). One ERP component, mismatch negativity (MMN), is a negative deflection approximately 160-200 ms after stimulus onset, which may be related to change detection from echoic sensory memory. We adapted a minimally invasive technique to record MMN in dogs. Dogs were exposed to an auditory oddball paradigm in which deviant tones (10% probability) were pseudo-randomly interspersed throughout an 8 min sequence of standard tones (90% probability). A significant difference in MMN ERP amplitude was observed after the deviant tone in comparison to the standard tone, t5 = −2.98, p = 0.03. This difference, attributed to discrimination of an unexpected stimulus in a series of expected stimuli, was not observed when both tones occurred 50% of the time, t1 = −0.82, p > 0.05. Dogs showed no evidence of pain or distress at any point. We believe this is the first illustration of MMN in a group of dogs and anticipate that this technique may provide valuable insights in cognitive tasks such as object discrimination.  相似文献
5.
失匹配负波(MMN)是由重复刺激序列(即标准刺激)中偶然出现的、与标准刺激有可辨别差异的偏差刺激所诱发的一种持续时间较短、极性为负的事件相关电位(ERP)。失匹配负波在人类和动物中普遍存在,并可在视、听、嗅等多种模态中诱发,其出现不依赖于注意,所以反映了大脑对知觉环境变化的自动感知,对动物的生存与繁殖成功至关重要。本文对不同类群动物失匹配负波研究、失匹配负波产生机制、发生源以及影响因素进行了综述,旨在厘清该生理指标的优势与不足,为动物认知潜在机制研究提供有益参考。最后文章对动物失匹配负波未来研究方向提出了展望。  相似文献
6.
ABSTRACT

In our previous study, the developmental effects of extremely low-frequency electric fields (ELF-EF) on visual and somatosensory evoked potentials in adult rats were studied. There is no study so far examining the effects of 50 Hz electric field (EF) on mismatch negativity (MMN) recordings after exposure of rats during development. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate MMN and oxidative brain damage in rats exposed to EF (12 kV/m, 1 h/day). Rats were divided into four groups, namely control (C), prenatal (Pr), postnatal (Po), and prenatal+postnatal (PP). Pregnant rats of Pr and PP groups were exposed to EF during pregnancy. Following birth, rats of PP and Po groups were exposed to EF for three months. After exposure to EF, MMN was recorded by electrodes positioned stereotaxically to the surface of the dura, and then brain tissues were removed for histological and biochemical analyses. The MMN amplitude was higher to deviant tones than to standard tones. It was decreased in all experimental groups compared with the C group. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) levels were significantly increased in the Po group with respect to the C group, whereas they were significantly decreased in the PP group compared with Pr and Po groups. Protein carbonyl levels were significantly decreased in the PP group compared with C, Pr, and Po groups. EF decreased MMN amplitudes were possibly induced by lipid peroxidation.  相似文献
7.
In today’s society, there is an increasing number of workplaces in virtual environments (VE). But, there are only a few reports dealing with occupational health issues or age effects. The question arises how VR generally interferes with cognitive processes. This interference might have relevant implications for workability and work-efficiency in virtual environments. Event-related potentials are known to reflect different stages of stimulus reception, evaluation, and response. We have established an electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring, focussing on event-related potentials (N100; mismatch negativity, i.e., MMN) to obtain access to attention dependent and pre-attentive processing of sensory stimuli applied in VE. The MMN is known to be correlated with the ability of subjects to react to an unexpected event. The aim of the present study was to investigate cognitive responses to distracting auditory stimuli in two different age groups in a virtual environment (VE) and in a real environment (“real reality”), and to compare characteristic neurophysiological response patterns. Data show that stimulus detection as given by the N100 amplitude and latency does not differ in both age groups and task conditions. In contrast, the pre-attentive processing as given by the MMN is altered in the VR such as the non-VR condition in an age-related manner. A relevant finding of the present study was that the age related differences seen in the non-VR condition were not strengthened in VR.  相似文献
8.
We offer a model of how human cortex detects changes in the auditory environment. Auditory change detection has recently been the object of intense investigation via the mismatch negativity (MMN). MMN is a preattentive response to sudden changes in stimulation, measured noninvasively in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the magnetoencephalogram (MEG). It is elicited in the oddball paradigm, where infrequent deviant tones intersperse a series of repetitive standard tones. However, little apart from the participation of tonotopically organized auditory cortex is known about the neural mechanisms underlying change detection and the MMN. In the present study, we investigate how poststimulus inhibition might account for MMN and compare the effects of adaptation with those of lateral inhibition in a model describing tonotopically organized cortex. To test the predictions of our model, we performed MEG and EEG measurements on human subjects and used both small- (<1/3 octave) and large- (>5 octaves) frequency differences between the standard and deviant tones. The experimental results bear out the prediction that MMN is due to both adaptation and lateral inhibition. Finally, we suggest that MMN might serve as a probe of what stimulus features are mapped by human auditory cortex.  相似文献
9.
Potential effects of a 30 min exposure to third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) mobile phone‐like electromagnetic fields (EMFs) were investigated on human brain electrical activity in two experiments. In the first experiment, spontaneous electroencephalography (sEEG) was analyzed (n = 17); in the second experiment, auditory event‐related potentials (ERPs) and automatic deviance detection processes reflected by mismatch negativity (MMN) were investigated in a passive oddball paradigm (n = 26). Both sEEG and ERP experiments followed a double‐blind protocol where subjects were exposed to either genuine or sham irradiation in two separate sessions. In both experiments, electroencephalograms (EEG) were recorded at midline electrode sites before and after exposure while subjects were watching a silent documentary. Spectral power of sEEG data was analyzed in the delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands. In the ERP experiment, subjects were presented with a random series of standard (90%) and frequency‐deviant (10%) tones in a passive binaural oddball paradigm. The amplitude and latency of the P50, N100, P200, MMN, and P3a components were analyzed. We found no measurable effects of a 30 min 3G mobile phone irradiation on the EEG spectral power in any frequency band studied. Also, we found no significant effects of EMF irradiation on the amplitude and latency of any of the ERP components. In summary, the present results do not support the notion that a 30 min unilateral 3G EMF exposure interferes with human sEEG activity, auditory evoked potentials or automatic deviance detection indexed by MMN. Bioelectromagnetics 34:31–42, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献
10.
We investigated the effect of mobile phone use on the auditory sensory memory in children. Auditory event‐related potentials (ERPs), P1, N2, mismatch negativity (MMN), and P3a, were recorded from 17 children, aged 11–12 years, in the recently developed multi‐feature paradigm. This paradigm allows one to determine the neural change‐detection profile consisting of several different types of acoustic changes. During the recording, an ordinary GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) mobile phone emitting 902 MHz (pulsed at 217 Hz) electromagnetic field (EMF) was placed on the ear, over the left or right temporal area (SAR1g = 1.14 W/kg, SAR10g = 0.82 W/kg, peak value = 1.21 W/kg). The EMF was either on or off in a single‐blind manner. We found that a short exposure (two 6 min blocks for each side) to mobile phone EMF has no statistically significant effects on the neural change‐detection profile measured with the MMN. Furthermore, the multi‐feature paradigm was shown to be well suited for studies of perception accuracy and sensory memory in children. However, it should be noted that the present study only had sufficient statistical power to detect a large effect size. Bioelectromagnetics 31:191–199, 2010. © 2009 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.  相似文献
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