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1. Handicap models of sexual selection propose that male ornaments are indicators of male quality and that honesty is enforced by the costs imposed by the exaggerated ornamental traits. In long-distance migratory birds that feed on the wing, the aerodynamic cost of exaggerated ornamental characters should be particularly high because the size of the ornaments deviates from the natural selection optimum. During migration, birds are expected to raise their oxygen consumption in relation to the energetic demands imposed by their morphology. An increase of haematocrit is an adaptive response to enhance oxygen uptake and efficiency of transfer to the muscular tissues during spells of intense muscular activity.
2. The change of haematocrit of Barn Swallows ( Hirundo rustica ) after their arrival to the breeding sites, and the relationships between haematocrit values recorded after migration and the size of ordinary and sexually selected morphological characters in three Barn Swallow populations were analysed.
3. Males had higher haematocrit values than females. Individual haematocrit values declined after arrival to the breeding sites. Haematocrit values of males were significantly and positively correlated with the size of their ornamental tail but not correlated with other characters, thus suggesting that well-ornamented males, in order to arrive early, have to raise their haematocrit above the level of short-tailed males.
4. Males and females of similar tail length did not differ in their haematocrit, thus suggesting that sexual dimorphism in haematocrit might be functionally related to dimorphism in tail length.
5. Our results are consistent with the handicap principle because long-tailed males experience lower mortality and larger seasonal reproductive success compared with short-tailed males.  相似文献
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吴庆明  邹红菲  金洪阳  马建章 《生态学报》2013,33(20):6470-6477
双台河口保护区是世界濒危鸟类丹顶鹤大陆种群西线群体不同生活史阶段的重要栖息地。2008-2010年3-4月,采用定点观察法、二维坐标法、方差分析、因子分析等方法对保护区内春迁期丹顶鹤觅食栖息地的多尺度选择进行了监测分析。研究结果表明:(1)春迁期,该保护区丹顶鹤觅食栖息地选择包括2个尺度3个选择,即大生境尺度内觅食生境类型选择和小生境尺度内觅食区选择、觅食微生境选择;(2)觅食生境类型偏好选择芦苇沼泽(90.00%),也偶选玉米地、泥滩、草甸等生境;(3)觅食区选择通过宏生境因子和干扰因子来判定,宏生境因子包括明水面、堤坝和火烧地,距离均在30m以内;干扰因子包括居民区和油田等强干扰因子和道路等弱干扰因子,均采取远离的方式进行回避,居民区保持在1km以上,油田保持在2km以上,道路保持在300-500m;(4)觅食微生境选择通过微生境因子来判定,包括植被高度、植被密度、植被直径等,选择盖度小(<5%)且植被高度小于喙长的区域觅食。  相似文献
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A growing number of paleodiet investigations over recent years have begun to reveal the stark dietary differences that existed between regions of the Roman Empire, as well as significant changes in subsistence strategies after its fall. The present study explores the dietary changes at the Roman to post‐Roman (Germanic) transition in the Northwest Iberian Peninsula, in order to improve our understanding of the changes that occurred at end of the Roman Empire in different regions across Europe and to also consider the influence of climate had on them. The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope investigation in bone collagen from A Lanzada, NW Spain (100–700 AD), which was an important commercial, coastal settlement has been presented. A human sample of 59 individuals, 6 of them subadults, is compared with 31 faunal specimens, which include a number of marine fish. Isotope data for the terrestrial fauna reveal the influence of the sea on the local isotope baseline. Analysis of the human samples indicates a mixed marine‐terrestrial diet. A shift in mean human δ13C values from −16.7‰ to −14.3‰ provides clear evidence for a significant change in diet in the post‐Roman period, probably through the intensification of both marine resources exploitation and C4‐plant consumption (presumably millet). A deterioration of paleoenvironmental conditions, together with a poor socioeconomic situation and the arrival of new people, the Sueves, who brought a new political and socioeconomic system have been discussed as the main causes for the dietary modification in post‐Roman times.  相似文献
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