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1.
The Human Intestinal Microbiome: A New Frontier of Human Biology   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
To analyze the vast number and variety of microorganisms inhabitingthe human intestine, emerging metagenomic technologies are extremelypowerful. The intestinal microbes are taxonomically complexand constitute an ecologically dynamic community (microbiota)that has long been believed to possess a strong impact on humanphysiology. Furthermore, they are heavily involved in the maturationand proliferation of human intestinal cells, helping to maintaintheir homeostasis and can be causative of various diseases,such as inflammatory bowel disease and obesity. A simplifiedanimal model system has provided the mechanistic basis for themolecular interactions that occur at the interface between suchmicrobes and host intestinal epithelia. Through metagenomicanalysis, it is now possible to comprehensively explore thegenetic nature of the intestinal microbiome, the mutually interactingsystem comprising the host cells and the residing microbialcommunity. The human microbiome project was recently launchedas an international collaborative research effort to furtherpromote this newly developing field and to pave the way to anew frontier of human biology, which will provide new strategiesfor the maintenance of human health.  相似文献
2.
Human gut microbiota and bifidobacteria: from composition to functionality   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The human gut is the home of an estimated 10(18) bacterial cells, many of which are uncharacterized or unculturable. Novel culture-independent approaches have revealed that the majority of the human gut microbiota consists of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Nevertheless the role of bifidobacteria in gut ecology illustrates the importance of Actinomycetes and other Actinobacteria that may be underestimated. The human gut microbiota represents an extremely complex microbial community the collective genome of which, the microbiome, encodes functions that are believed to have a significant impact on human physiology. The microbiome is assumed to significantly enhance the metabolism of amino and glycan acids, the turnover of xenobiotics, methanogenesis and the biosynthesis of vitamins. Co-colonisation of the gut commensals Bifidobacterium longum and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron in a murine model system revealed that the presence of bifidobacteria induced an expansion in the diversity of polysaccharides targeted for degradation by Bacteroides and also induced host genes involved in innate immunity. In addition, comparative analysis of individual human gut microbiomes has revealed various strategies that the microbiota use to adapt to the intestinal environment while also pointing to the existence of a distinct infant and adult-type microbiota.  相似文献
3.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with unknown etiology though both genetic and environmental factors have been suggested to be involved in its pathogenesis. While infections and other environmental factors (e.g. smoking) have been studied extensively and show some association, a direct link between all the factors has been difficult to prove. With the recent advances in technology, it has become possible to sequence the commensals that are residing in our gut. The gut microbiome may provide the missing link to this puzzle and help solve the mystery of many leaky gut syndromes. The gut commensals are involved in maintaining host immune homeostasis and function suggesting that they might be critical in altering the immune system, which leads to autoimmune diseases like RA. Mouse models support the role of the gut microbiota in predisposition to RA. If that is true, the power of gut-derived commensal can be harnessed to our benefit by generating a biomarker profile along with genetic factors to define individuals at risk and by altering the gut microbial composition using various means.  相似文献
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While our genomes are essentially static, our microbiomes are inherently dynamic. The microbial communities we harbor in our bodies change throughout our lives due to many factors, including maturation during childhood, alterations in our diets, travel, illnesses, and medical treatments. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that our microbiomes change us, by promoting health through their beneficial actions or by increasing our susceptibility to diseases through a process termed dysbiosis. Recent technological advances are enabling unprecedentedly detailed studies of the dynamics of the microbiota in animal models and human populations. This review will highlight key areas of investigation in the field, including establishment of the microbiota during early childhood, temporal variability of the microbiome in healthy adults, responses of the microbiota to intentional perturbations such as antibiotics and dietary changes, and prospective analyses linking changes in the microbiota to host disease status. Given the importance of computational methods in the field, this review will also discuss issues and pitfalls in the analysis of microbiome time-series data, and explore several promising new directions for mathematical model and algorithm development.  相似文献
6.
The mucosal immune system – consisting of adaptive and innate immune cells as well as the epithelium – is profoundly influenced by its microbial environment. There is now growing evidence that the converse is also true, that the immune system shapes the composition of the intestinal microbiome. During conditions of health, this bidirectional interaction achieves a homeostasis in which inappropriate immune responses to non-pathogenic microbes are averted and immune activity suppresses blooms of potentially pathogenic microbes (pathobionts). Genetic alteration in immune/epithelial function can affect host gardening of the intestinal microbiome, contributing to the diversity of intestinal microbiota within a population and in some cases allowing for unfavorable microbial ecologies (dysbiosis) that confer disease susceptibility.  相似文献
7.
Humans are colonized after birth by microbial organisms that form a heterogeneous community, collectively termed microbiota. The genomic pool of this macro-community is named microbiome. The gut microbiota is essential for the complete development of the immune system, representing a binary network in which the microbiota interact with the host providing important immune and physiologic function and conversely the bacteria protect themselves from host immune defense. Alterations in the balance of the gut microbiome due to a combination of environmental and genetic factors can now be associated with detrimental or protective effects in experimental autoimmune diseases. These gut microbiome alterations can unbalance the gastrointestinal immune responses and influence distal effector sites leading to CNS disease including both demyelination and affective disorders. The current range of risk factors for MS includes genetic makeup and environmental elements. Of interest to this review is the consistency between this range of MS risk factors and the gut microbiome. We postulate that the gut microbiome serves as the niche where different MS risk factors merge, thereby influencing the disease process.  相似文献
8.
The intestinal microbiota is a complicated ecosystem that influences many aspects of host physiology (i.e. diet, disease development, drug metabolism, and regulation of the immune system). It also exhibits spatial patterning and temporal dynamics. In this review, the effects of internal and external (environmental) factors on intestinal microbiota are discussed. We describe the roles of the gut microbiota in maintaining intestinal and immune system homeostasis and the relationship between gut microbiota and diseases. In particular, the contributions of polysaccharides, as the most abundant diet components in intestinal microbiota and host health are presented. Finally, perspectives for research avenues relating to gut microbiota are also discussed.  相似文献
9.
人体肠道共生着数以万亿计的微生物,肠道微生物在维持宿主正常生理功能中发挥重要作用,其成分和功能变化可导致严重的肠道和全身性疾病。以新一代测序技术和生物信息学分析为基础的元基因组学研究不仅极大地推动了对人类肠道微生物的整体认识,还加深了对肠道微生物代谢产物促进人类健康机理的理解,为肠道炎症、代谢性疾病和癌症等人类疾病的诊断与治疗提供了新思路。就肠道微生物元基因组学与肠道相关疾病的研究进展作一综述。  相似文献
10.
Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren is capable of feeding on living trees. This ability is attributed to their effective digestive system that is furnished by the termite's own cellulolytic enzymes and cooperative enzymes produced by their gut microbes. In this study, the identity of an array of diverse microbes residing in the gut of C. curvignathus was revealed by sequencing the near-full-length 16S rRNA genes. A total of 154 bacterial phylotypes were found. The Bacteroidetes was the most abundant phylum and accounted for about 65% of the gut microbial profile. This is followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Spirochetes, Proteobacteria, TM7, Deferribacteres, Planctomycetes, Ferrucomicrobia, and Termite Group 1. Based on the phylogenetic study, this symbiosis can be a result of long coevolution of gut enterotypes with the phylogenic distribution, strong selection pressure in the gut, and other speculative pressures that determine bacterial biome to follow. The phylogenetic distribution of cloned rRNA genes in the bacterial domain that was considerably different from other termite reflects the strong selection pressures in the gut where a proportional composition of gut microbiome of C. curvignathus has established. The selection pressures could be linked to the unique diet preference of C. curvignathus that profoundly feeds on living trees. The delicate gut microbiome composition may provide available nutrients to the host as well as potential protection against opportunistic pathogen.  相似文献
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