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排序方式: 共有83条查询结果,搜索用时 93 毫秒
1.
脂质组学研究进展   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
综述了脂质组学的研究现状和发展趋势.脂质组学是对生物体、组织或细胞中的脂质以及与其相互作用的分子进行系统分析的一门新兴学科.脂质具有多种重要的生物功能,脂质代谢异常可引发诸多人类疾病,包括糖尿病、肥胖症、癌症以及神经退行性疾病等.目前,脂质组学研究已成为一个前景广阔的热门领域,并广泛地应用到包括药物研发、分子生理学、分子病理学、功能基因组学、营养学以及环境与健康等重要领域.  相似文献
2.
Anti-hyperglycemic activity of a TGR5 agonist isolated from Olea europaea   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Olive tree (Olea europeaea) leaves are well known for their effect on metabolism in particular as a traditional anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive herbal drug. These properties are until now only attributed to oleuropein, the major secoiridoid of olive leaves. Here we describe the isolation and the identification of another constituent implicated in the anti-diabetic effect of this plant, i.e. oleanolic acid. We show that this triterpene is an agonist for TGR5, a member of G-protein coupled receptor activated by bile acids and which mediates some of their various cellular and physiological effect. Oleanolic acid lowers serum glucose and insulin levels in mice fed with a high fat diet and it enhances glucose tolerance. Our data suggest that both oleuropein and oleanolic acid are involved in the anti-diabetic effect of olive leaves and further emphasize the potential role of TGR5 agonists to improve metabolic disorders.  相似文献
3.
NLRP3炎性体与代谢性疾病的研究进展   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
代谢性疾病是由体内氨基酸、葡萄糖和脂质代谢紊乱引起的一类疾病,慢性炎症反应是其重要特征之一.Nod样受体蛋白3(Nod-like receptor protein 3,NLRP3)炎性体是位于细胞内的一种蛋白质复合体,主要功能为活化半胱氨酸天冬氨酸蛋白酶1(caspase-1)以间接调控白介素1β(IL-1β)、IL-18和IL-33等的成熟和分泌.NLRP3炎性体是炎性体相关研究的热点,多种内源性或外源性危险信号通过激活这一蛋白质复合体上调炎性因子的表达水平,从而促进多种代谢性疾病的发生发展.本文对NLRP3炎性体的结构、功能、调节以及在代谢性疾病中的作用做一综述,以期为代谢性疾病的防治提供新靶点.  相似文献
4.
We have examined the effect of addition of hydroxocobalamin to growth medium on the activity of the adenosylcobalamin-requiring enzyme methylmalonyl CoA mutase in normal human fibroblasts and in mutant human fibroblasts derived from patients with inherited methylmalonicacidemia. The mutant cell lines were assigned to four distinct genetic complementation groups (cbl A, cbl B, cbl C, and cbl D), each deficient in some step in the synthesis of adenosylcobalamin from hydroxocobalamin. After control cells were grown in cobalamin-supplemented medium, mutase holoenzyme activity increased markedly in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. Growth in cobalamin-supplemented medium had no effect on mutase activity in some mutant lines belonging to the cbl B group, while activity increased severalfold in other cbl B mutants and in all cbl A, cbl C, and cbl D mutants examined, although mutase activity was still <10% of control. Comparison of mutase holoenzyme activity and total propionate pathway activity suggests that enhancement of mutase activity in mutant cells after cobalamin supplementation to values 5–10% of control may be sufficient to overcome the inherited metabolic block and to restore total pathway activity to normal.This work was supported in part by a research grant from the National Institutes of Health (AM 12579). H. F. W. is a recipient of a traineeship from the National Institutes of Health (T01-GM02299).  相似文献
5.
Cilostazol is a drug licensed for the treatment of intermittent claudication. Its main action is to elevate intracellular levels of cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) by inhibiting the activity of type III phosphodiesterase, a cAMP-degrading enzyme. The effects of cilostazol on fatty acid oxidation (FAO) are as yet unknown. In this study, we report that cilostazol can elevate complete FAO and decrease both triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation and TAG secretion. This use of cilostazol treatment increases expression of PGC-1α and, subsequently, its target genes, such as ERRα, NOR1, CD36, CPT1, MCAD, and ACO. Expression of these factors is linked to fatty acid β-oxidation but this effect is inhibited by H-89, a specific inhibitor of the PKA/CREB pathway. Importantly, knockdown of PGC-1α using siRNA abolished the effects of cilostazol in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and TAG metabolism. These findings suggested that the PKA/CREB/PGC-1α pathway plays a critical role in cilostazol-induced fatty acid oxidation and TAG metabolism.  相似文献
6.

Background

Several anti-diabetes drugs exert beneficial effects against metabolic syndrome by inhibiting mitochondrial function. Although much progress has been made toward understanding the role of mitochondrial function inhibitors in treating metabolic diseases, the potential effects of these inhibitors on mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III remain unclear.

Methods

We investigated the metabolic effects of azoxystrobin (AZOX), a Qo inhibitor of complex III, in a high-fat diet-fed mouse model with insulin resistance in order to elucidate the mechanism by which AZOX improves glucose and lipid metabolism at the metabolic cellular level.

Results

Acute administration of AZOX in mice increased the respiratory exchange ratio. Chronic treatment with AZOX reduced body weight and significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed mice. AZOX treatment resulted in decreased triacylglycerol accumulation and down-regulated the expression of genes involved in liver lipogenesis. AZOX increased glucose uptake in L6 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes and inhibited de novo lipogenesis in HepG2 cells. The findings indicate that AZOX-mediated alterations to lipid and glucose metabolism may depend on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling.

Conclusions

AZOX, a Qo inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory complex III, exerts whole-body beneficial effects on the regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis in high-fat diet-fed mice.

General significance

These findings provide evidence that a Qo inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory complex III could represent a novel approach for the treatment of obesity.  相似文献
7.
Sphingolipid and glycosphingolipid levels and expression of sphingolipid metabolizing enzymes are altered in a variety of diseases or in response to drug treatment. Inherited defects of enzymes and other proteins required for the lysosomal degradation of these lipids lead to human sphingolipidoses. Also genetic defects that affect sphingolipid biosynthesis are known. Although the molecular details are often far from clear, (glyco)sphingolipids have been implicated to play a role in atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, cancer, and infections by pathogens. More general aspects of selected diseases are discussed.  相似文献
8.
在真核细胞中,内质网是蛋白质合成、折叠、加工及其质量监控的重要场所。当内质网难以承担蛋白折叠的高负荷时则引发内质网应激(ER stress),激活细胞的未折叠蛋白响应(unfoldedprotein response,UPR)。细胞通过内质网跨膜蛋白ATF6、PERK和IRE1介导的三条极为关键的UPR信号通路,调控下游相关基因的表达,以增强内质网对蛋白折叠的处理能力。因此,UPR通路在细胞的稳态平衡中具有举足轻重的作用,而这一动态过程的调控对于维持机体的正常生理功能至关重要。近来大量研究表明,在哺乳动物中内质网应激与机体的营养感应和糖脂代谢的调控过程密切相关。在肝脏、脂肪、胰岛以及下丘脑等不同的组织器官中,内质网应激均影响代谢通路的调节机制,因此在糖脂代谢紊乱的发生发展中扮演重要的角色。综上所述,进一步深入了解内质网应激引发代谢异常的生理学机制,可以为肥胖、脂肪肝及2型糖尿病等相关代谢性疾病的防治提供新的潜在药物靶点和重要的理论线索。  相似文献
9.
The discovery of a novel series of 5-HT2C agonists based on a tricyclic pyrazolopyrimidine scaffold is described. Compounds with good levels of in vitro potency and moderate to good levels of selectivity with respect to the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors were identified. One of the analogues (7g) was found to be efficacious in a sub-chronic weight loss model. A key limitation of the series of compounds was that they were found to be potent inhibitors of the hERG ion channel. Some compounds, bearing polar side chains were identified which showed a much reduced hERG liability however these compounds were sub-optimal in terms of their in vitro potency or selectivity.  相似文献
10.
郑丽  徐涛 《生命科学》2012,(7):606-610
糖尿病是一种以失控的高血糖为主要表现,多种并发症为主要损害的一种代谢性疾病,已严重影响人们的健康生活。从胰岛素靶器官的响应性、胰岛功能、胃肠分泌因子的调节和基因水平等方面对糖尿病的研究进展进行综述。  相似文献
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