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1.
褪黑素改善内毒素血症大鼠血管反应性   总被引:17,自引:0,他引:17  
观察褪黑素(melatonin,MT)对脂多糖(lipopolysaccharide,LPS)诱导的体循环和肺循环血管反应性失调的影响,并探讨可能的作用机制。实验分为溶剂对照组、LPS组、LPS+MT组和MT组。制备离体胸主动脉环和肺动脉环,应用血管张力检测技术检测各组血管环对苯肾上腺素(phenylephrine,PE)和乙酰胆碱(acetylcholine,ACh)的反应性并绘制累积剂量反应曲线;制备各组血管组织匀浆,测定丙二醛(malondialhyde,MDA)和超氧化物歧化酶(superoxidedismutes,SOD)含量变化。结果显示:与对照组相比,LPS6h后胸主动脉对PE的收缩反应减弱(P<0.01),对PE(1×10–8~1×10–5mol/L)累积剂量反应曲线下移;而肺动脉对ACh的舒张反应显著下降(P<0.01),对ACh(1×10–8~1×10–5mol/L)累积剂量反应曲线下移。加用MT可显著改善LPS诱导的胸主动脉对缩血管剂PE的低反应性,同时可逆转LPS对肺动脉舒张反应的抑制,LPS+MT组胸主动脉对PE的累积剂量反应曲线和肺动脉对ACh的累积剂量反应曲线位于对照组和LPS组之间;MT还可对抗LPS导致的脂质过氧化,使MDA含量减少,提高抗氧化酶SOD的活性。上述结果提示,MT可改善内毒素血症大鼠的血管反应性失调,抗氧化途径可能是其发挥保护作用的机制之一。  相似文献
2.
Melatonin and mitochondrial function   总被引:17,自引:0,他引:17  
Melatonin is a natural occurring compound with well-known antioxidant properties. In the last decade a new effect of melatonin on mitochondrial homeostasis has been discovered and, although the exact molecular mechanism for this effect remains unknown, it may explain, at least in part, the protective properties found for the indoleamine in degenerative conditions such as aging as well as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, sepsis and other injuries such as ischemia-reperfusion. A common feature in these diseases is the existence of mitochondrial damage due to oxidative stress, which may lead to a decrease in the activities of mitochondrial complexes and ATP production, and, as a consequence, a further increase in free radical generation. A vicious cycle thus results under these conditions of oxidative stress with the final consequence being cell death by necrosis or apoptosis. Melatonin is able of directly scavenging a variety of toxic oxygen and nitrogen-based reactants, stimulates antioxidative enzymes, increases the efficiency of the electron transport chain thereby limiting electron leakage and free radical generation, and promotes ATP synthesis. Via these actions, melatonin preserves the integrity of the mitochondria and helps to maintain cell functions and survival.  相似文献
3.
Actions of melatonin in the reduction of oxidative stress   总被引:17,自引:0,他引:17  
Melatonin was discovered to be a direct free radical scavenger less than 10 years ago. Besides its ability to directly neutralize a number of free radicals and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, it stimulates several antioxidative enzymes which increase its efficiency as an antioxidant. In terms of direct free radical scavenging, melatonin interacts with the highly toxic hydroxyl radical with a rate constant equivalent to that of other highly efficient hydroxyl radical scavengers. Additionally, melatonin reportedly neutralizes hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite anion, nitric oxide and hypochlorous acid. The following antioxidative enzymes are also stimulated by melatonin: superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Melatonin has been widely used as a protective agent against a wide variety of processes and agents that damage tissues via free radical mechanisms.  相似文献
4.
用简易的外科手术对阿白羊,盖县红山羊及二者杂交改良型绒山羊在梳绒后于其颈部皮下埋植一种含褪黑素的胶囊,经5周后受试羊群开始长绒,而对照群羊则未见绒生长。在9月中旬天然生绒开始时,受试群羊绒已分别长至3-5cm,,而对照群则刚开始生长至2cm。表明上述各受试群当年被成功地诱发二次生绒。  相似文献
5.
Melatonin Binding Sites   总被引:12,自引:2,他引:10  
The distribution and characterization of specific melatonin binding sites were studied using 125I-melatonin. Autoradiography revealed only three sites of specific melatonin binding in brain: the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the median eminence, and the small part of choroid plexus at the caudal end of the fourth ventricle. Two other sites were detected outside the CNS: the anterior pituitary and the retina. The specific binding of 125I-melatonin was saturable and reversible. The dissociation constant (KD) of the binding sites was 60 pM. The concentration of the binding sites (Bmax) in the median eminence was 26 fmol/mg protein, and in the pituitary 3 fmol/mg protein. Specificity of the binding sites was tested by displacement of 125I-melatonin. The order of potency--melatonin much less than N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine less than 5-methoxytryptamine much less than 5-hydroxytryptamine = 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine = noradrenaline--shows high specificity of the binding sites for melatonin.  相似文献
6.
Circadian rhythms, oxidative stress, and antioxidative defense mechanisms   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
Endogenous circadian and exogenously driven daily rhythms of antioxidative enzyme activities and of low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWAs) are described in various phylogenetically distant organisms. Substantial amplitudes are detected in several cases, suggesting the significance of rhythmicity in avoiding excessive oxidative stress. Mammalian and/or avian glutathione peroxidase and, as a consequence, glutathione reductase activities follow the rhythm of melatonin. Another hint for an involvement of melatonin in the control of redox processes is seen in its high-affinity binding to cytosolic quinone reductase 2, previously believed to be a melatonin receptor. Although antioxidative protection by pharmacological doses of melatonin is repeatedly reported, explanations of these findings are still insufficient and their physiological and chronobiological relevance is not yet settled. Recent data indicate a role of melatonin in the avoidance of mitochondrial radical formation, a function which may prevail over direct scavenging. Rhythmic changes in oxidative damage of protein and lipid molecules are also reported. Enhanced oxidative protein modification accompanied by a marked increase in the circadian amplitude of this parameter is detected in the Drosophila mutant rosy, which is deficient in the LMWA urate. Preliminary evidence for the significance of circadian rhythmicity in diminishing oxidative stress comes from clock mutants. In Drosophila, moderately enhanced protein damage is described for the arrhythmic and melatonin null mutant per0, but even more elevated, periodic damage is found in the short-period mutant pers, synchronized to LD 12:12. Remarkably large increases in oxidative protein damage, along with impairment of tissue integrity and—obviously insufficient—compensatory elevations in protective enzymes are observed in a particularly vulnerable organ, the Harderian gland, of another short-period mutant tau, in the Syrian hamster. Mice deficient in the per2 gene homolog are reported to be cancer-prone, a finding which might also relate to oxidative stress. In the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum [Gonyaulax polyedra], various treatments that cause oxidative stress result in strong suppressions of melatonin and its metabolite 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT) and to secondary effects on overt rhythmicity. The glow maximum, depending on the presence of elevated 5-MT at the end of subjective night, decreases in a dose-dependent manner already under moderate, non-lethal oxidative stress, but is restored by replenishing melatonin. Therefore, a general effect of oxidative stress may consist in declines of easily oxidizable signaling molecules such as melatonin, and this can have consequences on the circadian intraorganismal organization and expression of overt rhythms. Recent findings on a redox-sensitive input into the core oscillator via modulation of NPAS2/BMAL1 or CLK/BMAL1 heterodimer binding to DNA indicate a direct influence of cellular redox balance, including oxidative stress, on the circadian clock.  相似文献
7.
褪黑素对大鼠空间学习记忆的影响及其机制研究   总被引:11,自引:4,他引:7  
本研究运用Morris水迷宫和电生理学方法 ,以逃避潜伏期、穿环系数和海马CA1区突触长时程增强(long termpotentiation ,LTP)为指标 ,研究褪黑素对大鼠空间学习记忆能力的影响。实验结果显示 :( 1)在Morris水迷宫 6d训练中 ,对照组大鼠后 4d平均逃避潜伏期为 18 4 4± 2 7s,褪黑素组为 3 0 0 2± 3 6s,两者有显著差异 (P <0 0 1) ;训练 6d后 ,褪黑素组穿环系数为 2 5 68± 2 3 2 % ,明显小于对照组的 4 3 3 3± 2 85 % (P <0 0 1)。( 2 )采用微量注射法给予海马CA1区褪黑素 ,强直后 60min ,fEPSP斜率为基准值的 114 2 8± 1 80 % ,显著低于对照组的 169 71±6 4 8% (P <0 0 1)。( 3 )预先给予东莨菪碱 ,不影响褪黑素对海马CA1区LTP的抑制 ,强直后 60minfEPSP斜率为基准值的 113 70± 5 5 5 %。( 4 )提前给予荷包牡丹碱后给予褪黑素 ,强直后 60minfEPSP斜率为基准值的 162 2 9±10 5 2 % ,明显大于褪黑素组 (P <0 0 1) ,而与对照组无显著差异 (P >0 0 5 )。上述结果表明 ,褪黑素对大鼠的空间学习记忆能力及海马CA1区LTP均有明显的抑制作用 ,两者相关 ;东莨菪碱不能阻断褪黑素对海马CA1区LTP的抑制作用 ,而荷包牡丹碱可以阻断褪黑素对LTP的抑制 ,提示褪黑素的作用可能不是由胆碱能系统所介  相似文献
8.
季从亮  储明星  陈国宏 《遗传》2003,25(2):221-224
褪黑激素通过与药理学特异性的高亲和性G-蛋白耦联受体相结合来发挥其生物学功能。本文介绍了褪黑激素受体的结构、功能与调控、褪黑激素受体基因的克隆及基因结构、褪黑激素受体基因的发育性表达与作用、褪黑激素受体基因的定位与多态性分析,并讨论了该基因与繁殖季节性的关系。 Abstract:Melatonin exerts its biological effects through pharmacological specific,high affinity G protein-coupled receptors.This review introduced the structure,function,and regulation of melatonin receptor,the cloning and structure,developmental expression,mapping and polymorphism of melatonin receptor gene.The relationship between melatonin receptor gene and reproductive seasonality was also discussed.  相似文献
9.
10.
褪黑激素的研究进展   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
宋萍  赵志奇 《生命科学》2000,12(4):157-161
褪黑激素是一种在多个物种的多个组织中广泛存在并具有重要生理作用的激素。本文拟就褪黑激素在体内的分布,褪黑激素受体的分子结构、药理学特性、生物功能及调控模式作一简述。  相似文献
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