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1.
Abstract.— Sexual selection (defined as the change in genotypic or phenotypic frequencies of mated versus total population frequencies) and sexual isolation (defined as the deviation from random mating in mated individuals) show different evolutionary consequences and partially confounded causes. Traditionally, the cross-product estimator has been used to quantify sexual selection, whereas a variety of indexes, such as Yule V , Yule Q, YA , joint I , and others have been used to quantify sexual isolation. Because the two types of estimators use different scales, the effects of both processes cannot be monitored simultaneously. We describe three new related statistics that quantify both sexual selection ( PSS ) and sexual isolation ( PSI ) effects for every mating pair combination in polymorphic traits, as well as measure their combined effects ( PTI = PSI X PSS ). The new statistics have the advantage of providing information on every mating pair combination, quantifying the effects of sexual selection and isolation in the same units, and detecting asymmetry in sexual isolation. The ability of the new statistics to ascertain the biological causes of sexual selection and sexual isolation are investigated under different models involving distinct marginal frequencies, mate propensity, and mate choice coefficients. We also studied the use of classical isolation indexes applied on PSI coefficients, instead of on raw data. The use of the classical indexes applied to PSI coefficients considerably reduces the statistical bias of the estimates, revealing the good estimation properties of the new statistics.  相似文献
2.
Summary There has recently been a burgeoning interest in the analysis of paternity patterns for natural populations because of its relevance to population genetic phenomena such as the distance between successful mates, relative male reproductive success and gene flow. In this paper we develop a method of analyzing populational patterns of paternity, the fractional paternity method, and compare its performance to two other commonly used methods of paternity analysis (simple exclusion and the most-likely methods). We show that the fractional method is the most accurate method for determining populational patterns of paternity because it assigns paternity to all progeny examined, and because it avoids biases inherent in the other paternity analysis methods when model assumptions are met. In particular, it avoids a systematic bias of the most-likely paternity assignment method, which has a tendency to over-assign paternity of progeny to certain male parents with a greater than average number of homozygous marker loci. We also demonstrate the effect of linkage of some of the marker loci on paternity assignment, showing how the knowledge of the linkage phase of male and female parents in the population can significantly improve the accuracy of the estimates of populational patterns of paternity. Knowledge of the linkage phase of individuals in a population is usually unknown and difficult to assess without progeny testing, which involves considerable labor. However, we show how the linkage phase of hermaphroditic individuals in a population can be obtained in conjunction with the paternity analysis if progeny can be obtained from each hermaphroditic individual in the population, thereby avoiding the problem of traditional progeny testing. Applications of the fractional paternity approach developed herein should contribute significantly to our understanding of the mating patterns in, and hence the evolution of, natural populations.  相似文献
3.
Modern theory predicts that relative parental investment of the sexes in their young is a key factor responsible for sexual selection. Seahorses and pipefishes (family Syngnathidae) are extraordinary among fishes in their remarkable adaptations for paternal care and frequent occurrences of sex-role reversals (i.e., female-female competition for mates), offering exceptional opportunities to test predictions of sexual selection theory. During mating, the female transfers eggs into or onto specialized egg-brooding structures that are located on either the male's abdomen or its tail, where they are osmoregulated, aerated, and nourished by specially adapted structures. All syngnathid males exhibit this form of parental care but the brooding structures vary, ranging from the simple ventral gluing areas of some pipefishes to the completely enclosed pouches found in seahorses. We present a molecular phylogeny that indicates that the diversification of pouch types is positively correlated with the major evolutionary radiation of the group, suggesting that this extreme development and diversification of paternal care may have been an important evolutionary innovation of the Syngnathidae. Based on recent studies that show that the complexity of brooding structures reflects the degree of paternal investment in several syngnathid species, we predicted sex-role reversals to be more common among species with more complex brooding structures. In contrast to this prediction, however, both parsimony- and likelihood-based reconstructions of the evolution of sex-role reversal in pipefishes and seahorses suggest multiple shifts in sex roles in the group, independent from the degree of brood pouch development. At the same time, our data demonstrate that sex-role reversal is positively associated with polygamous mating patterns, whereas most nonreversed species mate monogamously, suggesting that selection for polygamy or monogamy in pipefishes and seahorses may strongly influence sex roles in the wild.  相似文献
4.
In mammals, species with highly male-biased sexual size dimorphismtend to have high variance in male reproductive success. However,little information is available on patterns of sexual selection,variation in male and female reproductive success, and bodysize and mating success in species with female-biased size dimorphism.We used parentage data from microsatellite DNA loci to examinethese issues in the yellow-pine chipmunk (Tamias amoenus), asmall ground squirrel with female-biased sexual size dimorphism.Chipmunks were monitored over 3 years in the Kananaskis Valley,Alberta, Canada. We found evidence of high levels of multiplepaternity within litters. Variation in male and female reproductivesuccess was equal, and the opportunity for sexual selectionwas only marginally higher in males than females. Male and femalereproductive success both depended on mating success. We foundno evidence that the number of genetic mates a male had dependedon body size. Our results are consistent with a promiscuousmating system in which males and female mate with multiple partners.Low variation in male reproductive success may be a generalfeature of mammalian species in which females are larger thanmales.  相似文献
5.
6.
The mating pattern and female fertility on the two main mitochondrial DNA haplotypes (I and II) of Drosophila subobscura were studied, in an attempt to find possible differences between them in relation to sexual selection or isolation that could explain the populational dynamics and the co-existence of these two strains in nature. The mating pattern indicated an assortative mating in population cages, where couples of the same haplotype, mainly those of haplotype I, mated more often. However, the significations detected in laboratory conditions disappeared in wild populations, where random mating was the rule. The female fertility also showed differences in the laboratory compared to the wild, since couples with haplotype I males were more efficient in the laboratory populations. These results, together with others that we previously obtained, either point to selection acting directly on the mtDNA or to the presence of some kind of cytonuclear co-adaptation in these two haplotypes, although this must be modulated by other factors that change with the seasons and time. The end result could well be a balance of opposite forces acting on both haplotypes.  相似文献
7.
杨兆芬 《昆虫学报》1991,34(2):166-172
 在美国密苏里哥伦比亚州立石桥公园一枝黄花(Solidago sp.)植物样地内,采集研究美国豆芫菁(Epicauta pennsylvanica)并测量其三项计量指标.统计结果表明,无论交配与否,同性别个体的头宽,第一触角节宽部与自身的干体重呈正相关(p<0.05).配对的雌、雄之间在身体干重、头宽和第一触角节宽间均无明显的相关性(p>0.05).室内的交配时间与雌、雄干重无明显相关性(p>0.05).因此,虽可能存在雄虫的单向性选择性,美国豆芫菁应属于随机交配型.作者不同意D.K.Mclain认为美国豆芫菁为选型交配的观点,并从种的生物学特性方面提出依据.  相似文献
8.
Two independent components of mating behaviour, sexual selection and assortative mating, were studied in two allopatric morphs, one sheltered boulder shore form (S-morph) and one exposed cliff shore form (E-morph), of Littorina saxatilis from the west coast of Sweden. Sexual selection was studied by comparing the sizes of copulating and non-copulating snails in the field. Size assortative mating was studied by collecting copulating pairs in the field, while assortative mating between morphs was investigated by bringing the pure morphs together in intermediary habitats and then noting the matings. The S-morph mated randomly in relation to size in two of the studied populations and exhibited a trend towards size assortative mating in a third, while the E-morph showed size assortative mating in both studied populations. The microdistribution of sizes of snails on the shores could not explain all the size assortative mating found, and instead it is argued that a size-based mate rejection behaviour also contributes to the assortative mating in at least some of these populations. There was sexual selection on size in both males and females in the S-morph, with large individuals being favoured as mates. In contrast, copulating snails of the E-morph were smaller than non-copulating ones. The significantly different sexual selection intensities between the two morphs may help to explain the size differences between them. There was random mating between the E- and the S-morphs of L. saxatilis, which suggests no incipient reproductive isolation between morphs on Swedish rocky shores. This is in agreement with earlier studies of Swedish populations, but is in contrast to the situation found in other geographical areas.  相似文献
9.
Extra-pair paternity (EPP) is a widespread and highly variable reproductive phenomenon in birds. We tested the effects of habitat, spatial factors, and timing of breeding on the occurrence of EPP in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus). We used PCR-amplified microsatellites to assess the paternity of 1479 nestlings from 537 broods on 235 territories over four breeding seasons. Over 4 years, 40% of nestlings were extra-pair. At least 27% of actual sires were non-neighbours, suggesting that males or females interacted over longer distances than in other populations of red-winged blackbirds. The level of EPP was significantly clumped within broods and males but not within females across broods. EPP was negatively related to the area of a male's territory. The spatial proximity of a female's nest to the territory boundary had no effect on total EPP, but tended to increase the probability of an EPP by a nearby male. We found no influence on EPP of the type of habitat on the territory or the level of nesting activity nearby. The time in the season when a nest was started and the synchrony of breeding also had no significant effect on the level of EPP. The age of the male, the age of his neighbours, and the interaction between the two had no effect on total EPP. However, older males were less likely to have an offspring sired by a neighbour on their territory. Males with older neighbours were also less likely to have offspring sired by a neighbour, particularly if they were new territory owners. The high variability in who gained and lost paternity, and the limited impact of spatial and temporal factors influencing it, have some interesting implications for theories seeking to explain mating patterns.  相似文献
10.
Studies of natural hybridization have suggested that it may be a creative stimulus for adaptive evolution and speciation. An important step in this process is the establishment of fit recombinant genotypes that are buffered from subsequent recombination with unlike genotypes. We used molecular markers and a two-generation sampling strategy to infer the extent of recombination in a Louisiana iris hybrid zone consisting predominantly of Iris fulva-type floral phenotypes. Genotypic diversity was fairly high, indicating that sexual reproduction is frequent relative to clonal reproduction. However, we observed strong spatial genetic structure even after controlling for clonality, which implies a low level of pollen and seed dispersal. We therefore used cluster analysis to explore the hypothesis that the fulva-type hybrids are an admixture of groups between which there has been limited recombination. Our results indicate that several such groups are present in the population and are strongly localized spatially. This spatial pattern is not attributable strictly to a lack of mating opportunities between dissimilar genotypes for two reasons: (1) relatedness of flowering pairs was uncorrelated with the degree of overlap in flowering, and (2) paternity analysis shows that pollen movement among the outcross fraction occurred over large distances, with roughly half of all paternity attributed to pollen flow from outside the population. We also found evidence of strong inbreeding depression, indicated by contrasting estimates of the rate of self-fertilization and the average inbreeding coefficient of fulva-type hybrids. We conclude that groups of similar hybrid genotypes can be buffered from recombination at small spatial scales relative to pollen flow, and selection against certain recombinant genotypes may be as important as or more important than clonal reproduction and inbreeding.  相似文献
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