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Sexual communication of nun moth, Lymantria monacha (L.), pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura Moore, and fumida tussock moth, Lymantria fumida Butler (all Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Lymantriinae), is known to be mediated by pheromones. We now show that males are attracted by the sounds of conspecific females over short distances and that wing fanning male and female L. monacha, L. mathura and L. fumida produce species- and sex-specific wing beat and associated click sounds that could contribute to reproductive isolation. Evidence for short-range communication in these lymantriines includes (i) scanning electron micrographs revealing metathoracic tympanate ears, (ii) laser interferometry showing particular sensitivity of tympana tuned to frequency components of sound signals from conspecifics, and (iii) phonotaxis of male L. monacha and L. fumida to speakers playing back sound signals from conspecific females. We conclude that tympanate ears of these moths have evolved in response not only to bat predation, but also for short-range mate finding and possibly recognition.  相似文献
2.
Theory on plasticity driving speciation, as applied to insect–plant interactions (the oscillation hypothesis), predicts more species in clades with higher diversity of host use, all else being equal. Previous support comes mainly from specialized herbivores such as butterflies, and plasticity theory suggests that there may be an upper host range limit where host diversity no longer promotes diversification. The tussock moths (Erebidae: Lymantriinae) are known for extreme levels of polyphagy. We demonstrate that this system is also very different from butterflies in terms of phylogenetic signal for polyphagy and for use of specific host orders. Yet we found support for the generality of the oscillation hypothesis, in that clades with higher diversity of host use were found to contain more species. These clades also consistently contained the most polyphagous single species. Comparing host use in Lymantriinae with related taxa shows that the taxon indeed stands out in terms of the frequency of polyphagous species. Comparative evidence suggests that this is most probably due to its nonfeeding adults, with polyphagy being part of a resulting life history syndrome. Our results indicate that even high levels of plasticity can drive diversification, at least when the levels oscillate over time.  相似文献
3.
A taxonomic review of the Korean Lymantria Hübner, 1819 was conducted. A total of nine species of five subgenera with two unrecorded species are listed: Lymantria (Porthetria) dispar Linnaeus 1758, L. (P.) xylina Swinhoe 1903, L. (Lymantria) monacha (Linnaeus 1758), L. (L.) minomonis Matsumura 1933 (new to Korea), L. (L.) similis monachoides Schintlimeister 2004 (new to Korea), L. (L.) lucescens (Butler 1881), L. (Nyctria) mathura Moore 1865, L. (Collentria) fumida Butler 1877, and L. (Spinotria) bantaizana Matsumura 1933. Lymantria (Lymantria) minomonis and L. (L.) similis monachoides are newly added to the Korean fauna. Lymantria (L.) minomonis was found only on Bogildo Island of Jeollanam‐do in the southern part of Korea, and L. (L.) similis monachoides was collected in central Korea. Lymantria (Porthetria) xylina and L. (Collentria) fumida were not examined in this study, and it is considered that the previous records were due to misidentification or they are only distributed in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. We provide diagnoses of two unrecorded species and adult habitus and genitalia photos of the Korean Lymantria species.  相似文献
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