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Abstract: Snell dwarf mice (dw) showed a lower CNPase activity (59% of the normal controls) only in the cerebrum among different parts of the CNS, and a strikingly reduced level of spontaneous locomotion activity with an indistinct diurnal periodicity in a 24-h record at 40 days of age. Daily administration of bGH and T4 to the dwarfs during the first 40 days of postnatal life restored CNPase activity to the level of the normal controls, and was accompanied by normalization of the pattern of spontaneous locomotion activity. Daily administration of bGH alone also restored CNPase activity and spontaneous locomotion, but to a lesser extent. The daily administration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) alone, however, failed to restore CNPase activity, in spite of the fact that the thyroid glands of the TSH-treated dwarfs were indistinguishable from the normal controls in organization and appearance. These results indicate that the restoration of both the retarded myelinogenesis and abnormal behavior of the Snell dwarf mice might essentially depend upon GH levels and the synergistic effects of T4.  相似文献
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Effects of metals on fish behavior: a review   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
Synopsis Behavioral toxicity tests, if properly designed, can be used in conjunction with standard acute lethality tests, chronic full or partial life cycle tests, and early life stage toxicity tests to add ecological realism to toxicant assessments and the regulations made as an outgrowth of these assessments. Changes in certain fish behaviors, especially cough rate and avoidance reactions, are very sensitive indicators of sublethal exposure to metals. Other tests involving predator avoidance, feeding behavior, learning, social interactions, and a variety of locomotor behaviors show promise but have been insufficiently studied to judge their sensitivity or utility. No behavioral tests have been standardized and few have been verified in the field. We discuss the behavioral tests that have been used with metals, examine their sensitivity compared with standard laboratory toxicity tests, and assess the potential ecological significance of the behavioral changes observed.Journal Paper No. .1-11959 of the Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station, Ames, IA 50011. U.S.A. Project No. 2627.  相似文献
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In locomotory systems, the central pattern generator and motoneuron output must be modulated in order to achieve variability in locomotory speed, particularly when speed changes are important components of different behavior acts. The swimming system of the pteropod molluscClione limacina is an excellent model system for investigating such modulation. In particular, a system of central serotonergic neurons has been shown to be intimately involved in regulating output of the locomotory pattern generator and motor system ofClione. There are approximately 27 pairs of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous system ofClione, with about 75% of these identified. The majority of these identified immunoreactive neurons are involved in various aspects of locomotory speed modulation. A symmetrical cluster of pedal serotonergic neurons serves to increase wing contractility without affecting wing-beat frequency or motoneuron activity. Two clusters of cerebral cells produce widespread responses that lead to an increase in pattern generator cycle frequency, recruitment of swim motoneurons, activation of the pedal serotonergic neurons and excitation of the heart excitor neuron. A pair of ventral cerebral neurons provides weak excitatory inputs to the swimming system, and strongly inhibits neurons of the competing whole-body withdrawal network. Overall, the serotonergic system inClione is compartmentalized so that each subsystem (usually neuron cluster) can act independently or in concert to produce variability in locomotory speed.  相似文献
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SPEED AND STAMINA TRADE-OFF IN LACERTID LIZARDS   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Bieke  Vanhooydonck  Raoul  Van Damme Peter  Aerts 《Evolution》2001,55(5):1040-1048
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Effects of cortisol on aggression and locomotor activity in rainbow trout   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Noninvasive administration of cortisol through the diet resulted in relatively rapid (<1.5 h) and highly reproducible increases in plasma cortisol in rainbow trout, comparable to changes seen in fish subjected to substantial stress. Juvenile rainbow trout were reared in isolation for 1 week, before their daily food ration was replaced by a meal of cortisol-treated food corresponding to 6 mg cortisol kg(-1). All fish were observed for 30 min, beginning at 1 or 48 h following the introduction of cortisol-treated food. Additional cortisol (75% of the original dose on Day 2, and 50% on Day 3) was administered to the long-term cortisol-treated group. The resulting blood plasma concentrations of cortisol were similar in short- and long-term treated fish, and corresponded to those previously seen in stressed rainbow trout. Controls were fed similar food without cortisol. Half of the fish from each treatment group (controls and short- and long-term cortisol) were subjected to an intruder test (a smaller conspecific introduced into the aquarium), while half of the fish were observed in isolation. In fish challenged by a conspecific intruder, short-term cortisol treatment stimulated locomotor activity, while long-term treatment inhibited locomotion. Aggressive behavior was also inhibited by long-term cortisol treatment, but not by short-term exposure to cortisol. Cortisol treatment had no effect on locomotor activity in undisturbed fish, indicating that the behavioral effects of cortisol were mediated through interaction with other signal systems activated during the simulated territorial intrusion test. This study demonstrates for the first time that cortisol has time- and context-dependent effects on behavior in teleost fish.  相似文献
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