首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   10303篇
  国内免费   130篇
  完全免费   1672篇
  2020年   114篇
  2019年   120篇
  2018年   416篇
  2017年   292篇
  2016年   282篇
  2015年   261篇
  2014年   535篇
  2013年   421篇
  2012年   454篇
  2011年   616篇
  2010年   493篇
  2009年   727篇
  2008年   783篇
  2007年   858篇
  2006年   664篇
  2005年   620篇
  2004年   536篇
  2003年   499篇
  2002年   385篇
  2001年   294篇
  2000年   274篇
  1999年   222篇
  1998年   204篇
  1997年   206篇
  1996年   169篇
  1995年   162篇
  1994年   152篇
  1993年   131篇
  1992年   119篇
  1991年   122篇
  1990年   120篇
  1989年   92篇
  1988年   97篇
  1987年   89篇
  1986年   86篇
  1985年   67篇
  1984年   69篇
  1983年   21篇
  1982年   54篇
  1981年   49篇
  1980年   44篇
  1979年   38篇
  1978年   35篇
  1977年   37篇
  1976年   28篇
  1975年   8篇
  1974年   2篇
  1973年   5篇
  1972年   15篇
  1971年   6篇
  1970年   8篇
  1969年   3篇
  1967年   1篇
排序方式: 共有12105条查询结果,搜索用时 93 毫秒
1.
Activation and signaling of the p38 MAP kinase pathway   总被引:97,自引:0,他引:97  
Zarubin T  Han J 《Cell research》2005,15(1):11-18
The family members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases mediate a wide variety of cellular behaviors in response to extracellular stimuli. One of the four main sub-groups, the p38 group of MAP kinases, serve as a nexus for signal transduction and play a vital role in numerous biological processes. In this review, we highlight the known characteristics and components of the p38 pathway along with the mechanism and consequences of p38 activation. We focus on the role of p38 as a signal transduction mediator and examine the evidence linking p38 to inflammation, cell cycle, cell death, development, cell differentiation, senescence and tumorigenesis in specific cell types. Upstream and downstream components of p38 are described and questions remaining to be answered are posed. Finally, we propose several directions for future research on p38.  相似文献
2.
Neurogenic differentiation of murine and human adipose-derived stromal cells   总被引:70,自引:0,他引:70  
The identification of cells capable of neuronal differentiation has great potential for cellular therapies. We examined whether murine and human adipose-derived adult stem (ADAS) cells can be induced to undergo neuronal differentiation. We isolated ADAS cells from the adipose tissue of adult BalbC mice or from human liposuction tissue and induced neuronal differentiation with valproic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, insulin, and hydrocortisone. As early as 1-3 h after neuronal induction, the phenotype of ADAS cells changed towards neuronal morphology. Following neuronal induction, muADAS cells displayed immunocytochemical staining for GFAP, nestin and NeuN and huADAS cells displayed staining for intermediate filament M, nestin, and NeuN. Following neuronal induction of murine and human ADAS cells, Western blot analysis confirmed GFAP, nestin, and NeuN protein expression. Pretreatment with EGF and basic FGF augmented the neuronal differentiation of huADAS cells. The neuronal differentiation of stromal cells from adipose tissue has broad biological and clinical implications.  相似文献
3.
小尾寒羊高繁殖力候选基因BMP15和GDF 9的研究   总被引:58,自引:0,他引:58  
以控制Belclare和Cambridge绵羊高繁殖力的骨形态发生蛋白 15 (bonemorphogeneticprotein 15 ,BMP15 )基因和生长分化因子 9(growthdifferentiationfactor 9,GDF9)基因为候选基因 ,采用PCR RFLP技术检测BMP15基因和GDF9基因在高繁殖力绵羊品种 (小尾寒羊、湖羊 )以及低繁殖力绵羊品种 (多赛特羊、特克塞尔羊、德国肉用美利奴羊 )中的单核苷酸多态性 ,同时研究这两个基因对小尾寒羊高繁殖力的影响。结果表明 :在 5个绵羊品种中都没有检测到GDF9基因的G8突变 (C→T) ,也没有检测到BMP15基因的B4突变 (G→T)。高繁殖力的小尾寒羊在BMP15基因编码序列第 718位碱基处发生了与Belclare绵羊和Cambridge绵羊相同的B2突变 (C→T) ,而其余 4个绵羊品种则没有发生这种突变。对于BMP15基因的B2突变 ,在小尾寒羊中检测到AA、AB两种基因型 ,A等位基因频率为 0 734,B等位基因频率为 0 2 6 6。小尾寒羊与其余 4个绵羊品种间B2突变基因型分布差异极显著 (P <0 0 0 1)。突变杂合基因型 (AB)小尾寒羊平均产羔数比野生纯合基因型 (AA)多 0 6 2只 (P <0 0 1)。研究结果表明 ,BMP15B2突变对小尾寒羊高繁殖力影响作用十分明显 ,同时排除了GDF9G8突变和BMP15B4突变影响小尾寒羊高繁殖力的可能性  相似文献
4.
陈小勇 《生态学报》2000,20(5):884-892
生境片断化是指大而连续的生境变成空间隔离的小种群的现象。生境片断化对植物种群遗传效应包括生境片断化过程中的取样效应及其后的小种群效应(遗传漂变、近交等)。理论研究表明,生境片断化后,植物种群的遗传变异程度将降低,而残留的小种群间的遗传分化程度将升高。然而对一些植物的研究表明,生境片断化对植物种群的遗传效应要受其他一些因素的影响,如世代长度、片断化时间、片断种群的大小、基因流的改变等。最后,针对生境  相似文献
5.
Hepatic differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells.   总被引:49,自引:0,他引:49  
Murine embryonic stem (ES) cells can replicate indefinitely in culture and can give rise to all tissues, including the germline, when reimplanted into a murine blastocyst. ES cells can also be differentiated in vitro into a wide range of cell types. We have utilized a liver-specific marker to demonstrate that murine ES cells can differentiate into hepatocytes in vitro. We have used ES cells carrying a gene trap vector insertion (I.114) into an ankyrin repeat-containing gene (Gtar) that we have previously shown provides an exclusive beta-galactosidase marker for the early differentiation of hepatocytes in vivo. beta-Galactosidase-positive cells were differentiated from I.114 ES cells in vitro. The identity of these cells was confirmed by the expression of the proteins alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, and transferrin and by the fact that they have an ultrastructural appearance consistent with that of embryonic hepatocytes. We propose that this model system of hepatic differentiation in vitro could be used to define factors that are involved in specification of the hepatocyte lineage. In addition, human ES cells have recently been derived and it has been proposed that they may provide a source of differentiated cell types for cell replacement therapies in the treatment of a variety of diseases.  相似文献
6.
应用70个微卫星标记分析了3个籼稻测验种和3个粳稻测验种的多态性,发现其中36个标记可以区分籼粳测验种。再以18个籼粳品种进一步筛选,找到了分布于12条染色体的21个籼粳特异性微卫星标记。在这21个标记中,20个在籼粳亚种间带型相异,其中7个在亚种内带型一致,13个在亚种内带型不一致;1个标记在12个籼稻品种和1个粳稻品种检测到相同的带型,其余11个粳稻品种具有另一种带型。微卫星标记和RFLP标记检测籼粳亚种不仅具有一致性,而且还有互补性。 Abstract:Six indica and japonica testers were assayed using 70 microsatellite markers.Thirty-six markers distinguishing indicas from japonicas were detected.By further-screening among 18 indica and japonica varieties,21 markers distributed on 12 rice chromosomes were found to be indica-japonica differentiated.No indica varieties shared same patterns with any japonica varieties at 20 marker loci,of which identical patterns were observed within subspecies at 7 loci while within-subspecies variations were observed at 13 loci.At the remaining locus,12 indica and 1 japonica varieties had the same allele,while other 11 japonica varieties had another allele.It also showed that SSLP was not only consistent,but also complementary,to RFLP for the subspecies identification.  相似文献
7.
In addition to long-term self-renewal capability, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess versatile differentiation potential ranging from mesenchyme-related multipotency to neuroectodermal and endodermal competency. Of particular concern is hepatogenic potential that can be used for liver-directed stem cell therapy and transplantation. In this study, we have investigated whether human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived MSCs are also able to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells. MSCs isolated from UCB were cultured under the pro-hepatogenic condition similar to that for bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs. Expression of a variety of hepatic lineage markers was analyzed by flow cytometry, RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. The functionality of differentiated cells was assessed by their ability to incorporate DiI-acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-Ac-LDL). As the cells were morphologically transformed into hepatocyte-like cells, they expressed Thy-1, c-Kit, and Flt-3 at the cell surface, as well as albumin, alpha-fetoprotein, and cytokeratin-18 and 19 in the interior. Moreover, about a half of the cells were found to acquire the capability to transport DiI-Ac-LDL. Based on these observations, and taking into account immense advantages of UCB over other stem cell sources, we conclude that UCB-derived MSCs retain hepatogenic potential suitable for cell therapy and transplantation against intractable liver diseases.  相似文献
8.
We report the differentiation of human adipose tissue stem cells (ATSCs) to take on cardiomyocyte properties following transient exposure to a rat cardiomyocyte extract. Reversibly permeabilized ATSCs were incubated for 1h in a nuclear and cytoplasmic extract of rat cardiomyocytes, resealed with CaCl(2), and cultured. Three weeks after exposure to extract, ATSCs expressed several cardiomyocyte markers including sarcomeric alpha-actinin, desmin, and cardiac troponin I, and displayed targeted expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43. Formation of binucleated and striated cells, and spontaneous beating in culture were also observed. A low proportion of intact ATSCs exposed to the extract also showed signs of alpha-actinin and connexin 43 expression. Additional evidence of differentiation was provided by induction of expression of nuclear lamin A/C, a marker of terminally differentiated cells, and a remarkable increase in cell cycle length. Together with our previous data, this study suggests that alteration of cell fate using cellular extracts may be applied to multiple cell types. Cell extracts may also prove useful for investigating the molecular mechanisms of stem cell differentiation.  相似文献
9.
Embryonic stem cells (ES cells), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and hepatic stem cells in liver have been known as a useful source that can induce to differentiate into hepatocytes. In this study, we examined whether human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (hADSC) can differentiate into hepatic lineage in vitro. hADSC, that were induced to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells by the treatment of HGF and OSM, had morphology similar to hepatocytes. Addition of DMSO enhanced differentiation into hepatocytes. RT-PCR and immunocytochemical analysis showed that hADSC express albumin and alpha-fetoprotein during differentiation. Differentiated hADSC showed LDL uptake and production of urea. Additionally, transplanted hADSC to CCl4-injured SCID mouse model were able to be differentiated into hepatocytes and they expressed albumin in vivo. Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human adipose tissue are immunocompatible and are easily isolated. Therefore, hADSC may become an alternative source to hepatocyte regeneration or liver cell transplantation.  相似文献
10.
水稻杂种一代与亲本幼苗基因表达差异的分析   总被引:47,自引:0,他引:47  
杂种优势是一种普遍存在的生物学现象,其形成的原因十分复杂。本世纪初,Bruce和Shull相继提出的杂种优势形成的显性互补假设和超亲优势假设至今仍作为一种理论模型而缺乏实验证实。水稻杂种优势的利用自70年代三系配套技术建立得到了广泛的应用,但水稻杂种优势形成的遗传学基础目前还知之甚少。在水稻杂种优势形成机理研究中,分别从生理生化代谢、同工酶分析、DNA限制性片段多态性和DNA含量差异进行了分析,但杂种优势形成的分子机理仍未得到阐明。杂种优势的形成是与异质化相关的过程,它涉及到两个遗传背景不同的体系的相互作用。因此,在相互作用过程中,亲本基因的表达与调控就决定了杂种一代的基因表达类型和特性。因此,我们从分析基因表达与调控入手,运用mRNA差异展示技术分析了玉米杂种一代与亲本基因表达的差异,揭示了不少有意义的现象。本研究以水稻籼型杂交组合(汕优63:珍汕97A×明恢63)为材料,探讨水稻杂种一代与亲本基因表达的差异,揭示了杂种优势形成过程中的一些重要现象。  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号