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1.
低磷胁迫对水稻苗期侧根生长及养分吸收的影响   总被引:44,自引:0,他引:44  
李海波  吴平 《Acta Botanica Sinica》2001,43(11):1154-1160
用蛭石与石英砂作为混合培养介质研究了低磷胁迫对水稻(Oryza sativa L.)苗期侧根发生发育的影响及其与磷吸收的相关关系。结果表明:低磷对水稻的侧根发生发育具有明显的诱导作用及基因型差异。相关性分析表明:单位侧根长度的增加与单位根表面积的增大极显相关,而单位侧根数量的增多与单位根表面积的增大无显的相关性。表明单位根表面积的增加主要来自于单位侧根的伸长。侧根参数与磷含量的相关性分析表明:低磷条件下,侧根总长度和侧根数量都与植株磷含量存在显的正相关,根系总表面积与磷含量存在极显的正相关。表明在低磷条件下,侧根的发生发育对水稻的磷吸收具有重要的作用。根系和地上部的可溶性糖含量分析表明;低磷胁迫改变了同化物在地上部和根系的分配。生物量测定表明:低磷胁迫显增大了植株的根冠比。  相似文献
2.
Bertil Andersson  Jan M. Anderson   《BBA》1980,593(2):427-440
The lateral distribution of the main chlorophyll-protein complexes between appressed and non-appressed thylakoid membranes has been studied. The reaction centre complexes of Photosystems I and II and the light-harvesting complex have been resolved by an SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic method which permits most of the chlorophyll to remain protein-bound.

The analyses were applied to subchloroplast fractions shown to be derived from different thylakoid regions. Stroma thylakoids were separated from grana stacks by centrifugation following chloroplast disruption by press treatment or digitonin. Vesicles derived from the grana partitions were isolated by aqueous polymer two-phase partition. A substantial depletion in the amount of Photosystem I chlorophyll-protein complex and an enrichment in the Photosystem II reaction centre complex and the light-harvesting complex occurred in the appressed grana partition region. The high enrichment in this fraction compared to grana stack fractions derived from press or digitonin treatments, suggests that the grana Photosystem I is restricted mainly to the non-appressed grana end membranes and margins, and that the grana partitions possess mainly Photosystem II reaction centre complex and the light-harvesting complex.

In contrast, stroma thylakoids are highly enriched in the Photosystem I reaction centre complex. They possess also some 10–20% of the total Photosystem II reaction centre complex and the light-harvesting complex.

The ratio of light-harvesting complex to Photosystem II reaction centre complex is rather constant in all subchloroplast fractions suggesting a close association between these complexes. This was not so for the ratio of light-harvesting complex and the Photosystem I reaction centre complex.

The lateral heterogeneity in the distribution of the photosystems between appressed and non-appressed membranes must have a profound impact on current understanding of both the distribution of excitation energy and photosynthetic electron transport between the photosystems.  相似文献

3.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive molecule that functions in numerous physiological processes in plants, most of them involving cross-talk with traditional phytohormones. Auxin is the main hormone that regulates root system architecture. In this communication we report that NO promotes lateral root (LR) development, an auxin-dependent process. Application of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings induced LR emergence and elongation in a dose-dependent manner, while primary root (PR) growth was diminished. The effect is specific for NO since the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (CPTIO) blocked the action of SNP. Depletion of endogenous NO with CPTIO resulted in the complete abolition of LR emergence and a 40% increase in PR length, confirming a physiological role for NO in the regulation of root system growth and development. Detection of endogenous NO by the specific probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2 DA) revealed that the NO signal was specifically located in LR primordia during all stages of their development. In another set of experiments, SNP was able to promote LR development in auxin-depleted seedlings treated with the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Moreover, it was found that LR formation induced by the synthetic auxin 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) was prevented by CPTIO in a dose-dependent manner. All together, these results suggest a novel role for NO in the regulation of LR development, probably operating in the auxin signaling transduction pathway.Abbreviations CPTIO 2-(4-Carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide - DAF-2 DA 4,5-Diaminofluorescein diacetate - LR Lateral root - NAA 1-Naphthylacetic acid - NO Nitric oxide - NPA N-1-Naphthylphthalamic acid - PR Primary root - SNP Sodium nitroprusside  相似文献
4.
Root system development is an important agronomic trait. The right architecture in a given environment allows plants to survive periods of water of nutrient deficit, and compete effectively for resources. Root systems also provide an optimal system for studying developmental plasticity, a characteristic feature of plant growth. This review proposes a framework for describing the pathways regulating the development of complex structures such as root systems: intrinsic pathways determine the characteristic architecture of the root system in a given plant species, and define the limits for plasticity in that species. Response pathways co-ordinate environmental cues with development by modulating intrinsic pathways. The current literature describing the regulation of root system development is summarized here within this framework. Regulatory pathways are also organized based on their specific developmental effect in the root system. All the pathways affect lateral root formation, but some specifically target initiation of the lateral root, while others target the development and activation of the lateral root primordium, or the elongation of the lateral root. Finally, we discuss emerging approaches for understanding the regulation of root system architecture.  相似文献
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6.
兴安盟3个民族7种不对称行为特征的研究   总被引:31,自引:1,他引:30  
于1998年9月对内蒙古兴安盟的汉、蒙古、朝鲜族调查了1852例(男875例,女977例)中学生的7种不对称行为特征(利手、扣手、叠臂、叠腿、起步类型、利足、利眼)。结果显示:(1)3个民族中多数不对称行为特征的右型出现率过半。(2)扣手、叠壁、起步类型的出现率存在一定的民族间差异,而其它4种行征的出现率无此差异。(3)多数特征的出现率男女间差异不显著。(4)不对称行为特征间具有相关的数量较多,程序较高,所有存在相关的特征间均表现为同侧组合特征类型为其亲合特征。  相似文献
7.
More than 20 matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and four of their endogenous tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) act together to control tightly temporally restricted, focal proteolysis of extracellular matrix. In the neurons of the adult brain several components of the TIMP/MMP system are expressed and are responsive to changes in neuronal activity. Furthermore, functional studies, especially involving blocking of MMP activities, along with the identification of MMP substrates in the brain strongly suggest that this enzymatic system plays an important physiological role in adult brain neurons, possibly being pivotal for neuronal plasticity.  相似文献
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9.
Abstract: Some cases of autosomal dominant familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) are associated with mutations in the gene encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), suggesting that oxidative damage may play a role in ALS pathogenesis. To further investigate the biochemical features of FALS and sporadic ALS (SALS), we examined markers of oxidative damage to protein, lipids, and DNA in motor cortex (Brodmann area 4), parietal cortex (Brodmann area 40), and cerebellum from control subjects, FALS patients with and without known SOD mutations, SALS patients, and disease controls (Pick's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, diffuse Lewy body disease). Protein carbonyl and nuclear DNA 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (OH8dG) levels were increased in SALS motor cortex but not in FALS patients. Malondialdehyde levels showed no significant changes. Immunohistochemical studies showed increased neuronal staining for hemeoxygenase-1, malondialdehyde-modified protein, and OH8dG in both SALS and FALS spinal cord. These studies therefore provide further evidence that oxidative damage may play a role in the pathogenesis of neuronal degeneration in both SALS and FALS.  相似文献
10.
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