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1.
One hundred and seventeen clades of euagarics   总被引:23,自引:0,他引:23  
This study provides a first broad systematic treatment of the euagarics as they have recently emerged in phylogenetic systematics. The sample consists of 877 homobasidiomycete taxa and includes approximately one tenth (ca. 700 species) of the known number of species of gilled mushrooms that were traditionally classified in the order Agaricales. About 1000 nucleotide sequences at the 5(') end of the nuclear large ribosomal subunit gene (nLSU) were produced for each taxon. Phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide sequence data employed unequally weighted parsimony and bootstrap methods. Clades revealed by the analyses support the recognition of eight major groups of homobasidiomycetes that cut across traditional lines of classification, in agreement with other recent phylogenetic studies. Gilled fungi comprise the majority of species in the euagarics clade. However, the recognition of a monophyletic euagarics results in the exclusion from the clade of several groups of gilled fungi that have been traditionally classified in the Agaricales and necessitates the inclusion of several clavaroid, poroid, secotioid, gasteroid, and reduced forms that were traditionally classified in other basidiomycete orders. A total of 117 monophyletic groups (clades) of euagarics can be recognized on the basis on nLSU phylogeny. Though many clades correspond to traditional taxonomic groups, many do not. Newly discovered phylogenetic affinities include for instance relationships of the true puffballs (Lycoperdales) with Agaricaceae, of Panellus and the poroid fungi Dictyopanus and Favolaschia with Mycena, and of the reduced fungus Caripia with Gymnopus. Several clades are best supported by ecological, biochemical, or trophic habits rather than by morphological similarities.  相似文献
2.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities were established in pots using fungal isolates from a single field in Switzerland. It was tested whether multispecies mixtures provided more phosphorus and supported greater plant growth than single AMF species. Two host plants, medic (Medicago truncatula) and leek (Allium porrum), were inoculated with three AMF species (Glomus mosseae, G. claroideum and G. intraradices), either separately or in mixtures. The composition of the AMF communities in the roots was assessed using real-time PCR to determine the copy number of large ribosomal subunit genes. Fungal communities in the roots were usually dominated by one AMF species (G. mosseae). The composition of the communities depended on both plant identity and the time of harvest. Leek colonized by a mixture of G. claroideum and G. intraradices acquired more P than with either of the two AMF separately. Direct evidence is provided for functional complementarity among species within the AMF community colonizing a single root system. Competition among the species poses a major challenge in interpreting experiments with mixed inoculations, but this is greatly facilitated by use of real-time PCR.  相似文献
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4.
We have characterized a macronuclear gene of the ciliate protozoan Euplotes raikovi, which encodes an acidic ribosomal protein of the P protein family. This gene shows the typical organization of the hypotrich ciliate macronuclear "gene-sized" molecules with Euplotes telomeres at the ends. The longest open reading frame encodes a conceptual protein of 113 amino acid residues, with a molecular mass and pI value of 11.45 kDa and 3.97, respectively. By using sequence homology analysis, the protein was found to belong to the ribosomal P2 protein family and was named Er P2, where Er stands for Euplotes raikovi. These proteins, generally called A (acidic/alanine rich) proteins in prokaryotes and P (phosphorylated) proteins in eukaryotes, in which they are divided into P1 and P2 families, play a role in the elongation step of protein synthesis. Approximately 40% amino acid sequence identity was found between the cloned protein and other known protozoan ribosomal P2 proteins. Within its N-terminal half, this protein contains several potential kinase phosphorylation sites. Protein Er P2 differs markedly from the consensus P protein sequence in its C-terminal region, usually highly conserved among eukaryotic ribosomal P proteins, and shows similarities with the C-terminus of the archaebacterial ribosomal A proteins. To our knowledge, this E. raikovi protein represents the first demonstration of a ribosome-associated protein of the P2 family in a ciliate protozoan.  相似文献
5.
To increase knowledge about the systematics and evolution of Mediterranean soles, we assessed mitochondrial DNA variation, molecular phylogeny, and evolution in eight species from the genera Solea, Microchirus, Monochirus, and Buglossidium by large ribosomal subunit (16S) and cytochrome b (cytb) sequence analysis. Relevant molecular features are the great variation of base composition among species at the third codon in cytb and the heterogeneity of the nucleotide substitution rate. Phylogenies recovered using 16S nucleotide and cytb amino acid sequences agree with those based on morphology in assessing monophyly of Solea species and ancestry of Buglossidium luteum, but they are against the intergeneric differentiation of Microchirus and Monochirus. Conversely, phylogenetic trees based on cytb nucleotide sequences yielded relationships among taxa regardless of their evolutionary histories. The incongruities between morphological and molecular issues suggest the need for reassessing the systematic value of some morphological characters. Approximate estimates of the divergence time of Mediterranean soleid lineages range from 40 to 13 Mya (Oligocene–Miocene), indicating an ancient origin for the group. Received August 31, 1999; accepted December 17, 1999.  相似文献
6.
Evolutionary trees were constructed, by distance methods, from an alignment of 225 complete large subunit (LSU) rRNA sequences, representing Eucarya, Archaea, Bacteria, plastids, and mitochondria. A comparison was made with trees based on sets of small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences. Trees constructed on the set of 172 species and organelles for which the sequences of both molecules are known had a very similar topology, at least with respect to the divergence order of large taxa such as the eukaryotic kingdoms and the bacterial divisions. However, since there are more than ten times as many SSU as LSU rRNA sequences, it is possible to select many SSU rRNA sequence sets of equivalent size but different species composition. The topologies of these trees showed considerable differences according to the particular species set selected.The effect of the dataset and of different distance correction methods on tree topology was tested for both LSU and SSU rRNA by repetitive random sampling of a single species from each large taxon. The impact of the species set on the topology of the resulting consensus trees is much lower using LSU than using SSU rRNA. This might imply that LSU rRNA is a better molecule for studying wide-range relationships. The mitochondria behave clearly as a monophyletic group, clustering with the Proteobacteria. Gram-positive bacteria appear as two distinct groups, which are found clustered together in very few cases. Archaea behave as if monophyletic in most cases, but with a low confidence.Abbreviations LSU rRNA large subunit ribosomal RNA - SSU rRNA small subunit ribosomal RNA - JC Jukes and Cantor - JN Jin and Nei Correspondence to: R. De Wachter  相似文献
7.
Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis is a common technique used to characterize soil microbial diversity. The fidelity of this technique in accurately reporting diversity has not been thoroughly evaluated. Here we determine if rare fungal species can be reliably detected by T-RFLP analysis. Spores from three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species were each mixed at a range of concentrations (1%, 10%, 50%, and 100%) with Glomus irregulare to establish a minimum detection threshold. T-RFLP analysis was capable of detecting diagnostic peaks of rare taxa at concentrations as low as 1%. The relative proportion of the target taxa in the sample and DNA concentration influenced peak detection reliability. However, low concentrations produced small, inconsistent electropherogram peaks contributing to difficulty in differentiating true peaks from signal noise. The results of this experiment suggest T-RFLP is a reproducible and high fidelity procedure, which requires careful data interpretation in order to accurately characterize sample diversity.  相似文献
8.
We present an initial genomic analysis of the non-symbiotic scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa, the dominant cold-water reef-building coral species in the North Atlantic Ocean. A significant fraction of the deep sequencing reads was of mitochondrial and microbial origins. SOLiD deep sequencing reads from fragment library experiments of total DNA and PCR amplified mitogenome generated about 21,000 times and 136,000 times coverage, respectively, of the 16,150bp mitogenome. Five polymorphic sites that include two non-synonymous sites in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes were detected in both experiments. This observation is surprising since anthozoans in general exhibit very low mtDNA sequence variation at intraspecific level compared to nuclear sequences. More than fifty bacterial species associated with the coral isolate were also sequence detected, representing at least ten complete genomes. Most reads, however, were predicted to originate from the Lophelia nuclear genome.  相似文献
9.
Sequencing of the 5' end of the large ribosomal subunit (LSU rDNA) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were combined to assess the impact of four annual Medicago species (Medicago laciniata, Medicago murex, Medicago polymorpha and Medicago truncatula) on the genetic diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and on the relative abundance of representative AM fungal genotypes, in a silty-thin clay soil (Mas d'Imbert, France). Two hundred and forty-six Glomeromycete LSU rDNA sequences from the four plant species and the bulk soil were analysed. The high bootstrap values of the phylogenetic tree obtained allowed the delineation of 12 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), all belonging to Glomus. Specific primers targeting Glomeromycetes and major OTUs were applied to quantify their abundance by qPCR. Glomeromycetes and targeted OTUs were significantly more abundant in the root tissues than in the bulk soil, and the frequencies of three of them differed significantly in the root tissues of the different plant species. These differences indicate that, despite the absence of strict host specificity in mycorrhizal symbiosis, there was a preferential association between some AM fungal and plant genotypes.  相似文献
10.
Wu B  Hogetsu T  Isobe K  Ishii R 《Mycorrhiza》2007,17(6):495-506
Community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), evaluated as spore samples and mycorrhizal roots of four herbaceous plant species, was investigated at different altitudes in a primary successional volcanic desert on Mount Fuji using molecular methods (fragment and sequence analysis of the large ribosomal subunit RNA gene). In total, 17 different AMF clades were identified, and most were members of the Glomaceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Gigasporaceae. The AMF community structures detected by spore sampling were inconsistent with those from plant roots. Of all AMF clades, six (35.3%) were detected only on the basis of spores, six (35.3%) only in roots, and five corresponded to both spores and roots (29.4%). Although an Acaulospora species was the most dominant among spores (67.1%), it accounted for only 6.8% in root samples. A species analysis of AMF communities at different altitudes demonstrated that AMF species diversity increased as altitude decreased and that the species enrichment at lower altitudes resulted from the addition of new species rather than species replacement. The inconsistencies in the species composition of spore communities with those in roots and the change in species diversity with altitude are discussed.  相似文献
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