首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   350篇
  完全免费   75篇
  2021年   5篇
  2020年   12篇
  2019年   14篇
  2018年   11篇
  2017年   18篇
  2016年   15篇
  2015年   9篇
  2014年   23篇
  2013年   20篇
  2012年   20篇
  2011年   9篇
  2010年   10篇
  2009年   19篇
  2008年   20篇
  2007年   17篇
  2006年   18篇
  2005年   27篇
  2004年   23篇
  2003年   16篇
  2002年   33篇
  2001年   16篇
  2000年   14篇
  1999年   11篇
  1998年   12篇
  1997年   4篇
  1996年   4篇
  1995年   10篇
  1994年   3篇
  1993年   2篇
  1992年   1篇
  1991年   1篇
  1990年   1篇
  1987年   1篇
  1986年   1篇
  1985年   1篇
  1984年   1篇
  1982年   2篇
  1975年   1篇
排序方式: 共有425条查询结果,搜索用时 38 毫秒
1.
中国森林植被碳库的动态变化及其意义   总被引:103,自引:0,他引:103  
利用1949年至1998年间7次森林资源清查资料,结合使用森林生物量实测资料,采用改良的生物量换算因子法,推算了中国50年来森林碳库和平均碳密度的变化,分析了中国森林植被的CO2源汇功能,结果表明,70年代中期以前,主要由于森林砍伐等人为作用,中国森林碳库和碳密度都是减少的,碳储量减少了0.62PgC(Pg=10^15g),年均减少约0.024PgC。之后,呈增加趋势。在最近的20多年中,森林碳库由70年代末期的4.38PgC增加到1998年的4.75PgC,共增加0.37PgC,年平均增加0.022PgC。这种增加主要由人工造林增加所致。20多年来,由于人工林增加导致碳汇增加0.45PgC,年平均增加吸收0.021PgC/a。人工林的平均碳密度也显增加,共增加了约一倍。这除了人工成林增多外,气温上升和CO2浓度施肥也可能是促进森林生长的重要因子。  相似文献
2.
土地利用变化对土壤有机碳贮量的影响   总被引:90,自引:10,他引:80       下载免费PDF全文
通过对比分析六盘山林区典型天然次生林(杂灌林、山杨和辽东栎林)与农田、草地及农田、草地与人工林(13、18和25年生华北落叶松)邻近样地土壤有机碳含量和密度及其在土壤剖面上分布的差异,研究了天然次生林变成农田或草地及农田或草地造林后对土壤有机碳贮量的影响,结果表明,土壤有机碳含量方面,农田和草地比天然次生林分别低54%和27%,差异主要在0~50cm土层;农田和草地比人工林分别低42%和26%,差异主要在0~40cm土层,土壤有机碳密度方面,农田和草地比天然次生林分别低35%和14%,差异主要在0~50cm土层;农田比人工林低23%,草地比人工林高4%,差异主要在0~30cm土层.天然次生林和人工林土壤有机碳含量和密度随土层加深而递减的幅度比农田或草地大.这些差异主要由土地利用变化引起的土壤有机碳输入与输出及根系分布的变化所致.结果说明六盘山林区天然次生林破坏变成草地或农田后土壤有机碳含量和密度(主要是0~50cm土层)将下降,而农田中造林后土壤有机碳含量和密度(主要是0~30cm土层)又将增加,草地上造林后土壤有机碳含量增加而密度变化不大。另外,土壤有机碳含量和密度在土壤剖面上的分布也将随土地利用变化而发生改变。  相似文献
3.
 Science杂志于2001年发表了方精云等人关于中国森林植被碳库及其变化的论文(Fang et al., 2001, 291: 2320~2322)。该文利用大量的生物量实测数据,结合使用中国50年来的森林资源清查资料及相关的统计资料,基于生物量换算因子连续函数法,研究了中国森林植被碳库及其时空变化。这是一个大时空尺度的工作,涉及一些大尺度生态学研究的原理、方法以及尺度转换问题。由于篇幅所限,论文并未详细说明这些问题。为了帮助理解大尺度生态学研究的方法和思路,本文给出了论文中涉及生物量计算的理论基础,对  相似文献
4.
赵敏  周广胜 《应用生态学报》2004,15(8):1468-1472
基于森林资源清查资料的森林生物量估算是在景观、区域甚至全球尺度上评估森林碳收支的重要手段。且在陆地生态系统碳循环和全球变化研究中起着十分重要的作用.对3种常见的基于森林资源清查资料估算生物量的方法及其不足进行较为系统概述的基础上,指出了其未来的研究方向:1)综合考虑森林生物学因素与非生物学因素对森林生物量的影响,特别是蓄积量和林龄,以及气候因子在估算生物量中的作用;2)明确森林总生物量与活立木生物量的关系;3)建立基于森林资源清查资料的遥感驱动生物量估算模型,为森林生物量的准确估算提供方法和依据.  相似文献
5.
6.
 丰富的森林资源清查资料是了解各类森林材积准确信息的重要途径,如果能将这些资源用于估算森林生物量和生产力的动态变化,不仅对于科学地指导森林的经营管理,而且对于全球变化的研究,特别是区域尺度的生产力模型验证,都具有重要意义。根据我国落叶松(Larix)林生物量和材积的实际调查资料,探讨了基于森林资源清查资料(森林材积V和林龄A)估算森林生物量和生产力的方法,指出无论是人工林还是天然林,落叶松林的生物量与其蓄积量、生产力与其年均净生物生产量(B/A)和年均净蓄积生产量(V/A)均呈双曲线关系,但落叶松林的生产力与其生物量(B)关系不明显,并分别建立了人工和天然落叶松林的相关模型;所建模型克服了将森林生物量与其蓄积量之比作为常数的不足,并考虑了林龄对于森林生产力的影响。  相似文献
7.
森林生态系统碳平衡估测方法及其研究进展   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19       下载免费PDF全文
综述了全球范围内森林生态系统碳平衡估测的 2种主要方法 ,即测定表面通量的微气象学方法 (涡相关法 )和生物量清单统计方法。指出了每种方法的优缺点及综合运用各种方法的重要性。简要介绍了应用上述方法对森林生态系统碳平衡研究的进展情况 ,并对今后森林生态系统碳平衡研究的发展趋势进行了探讨。  相似文献
8.
137Cs示踪技术研究坡耕地黑土侵蚀和沉积特征   总被引:17,自引:1,他引:16       下载免费PDF全文
准确地测定研究区137Cs背景值,建立137Cs流失量与土壤再分布速率之间的定量模型是137Cs示踪技术的关键。通过野外选择参照样地和利用热核爆炸源137Cs背景值模型来确定研究区137Cs的背景值,在此基础上用体现耕作迁移的质量平衡模型估算黑土坡耕地不同地貌部位的土壤再分布速率,并对主要参数进行敏感性分析。结果表明(1)研究区实测的137Cs背景值为2376.81±108.46Bq/m2,模型预测值为2318.4Bq/m2,模型预测远离西北核试验基地的地区较为准确。(2)研究区中坡位(坡肩和坡背)137Cs含量最低,侵蚀最为强烈,平均侵蚀速率为33.56t/(hm2·a)和21.67t/(hm2·a);坡麓和坡足则明显表现沉积,平均沉积速率为-4.93t/(hm2·a)和-24.61t/(hm2·a)。(3)模型预测的侵蚀速率与耕层质量深度(d)、张驰深度(H)正相关,而与137Cs年沉降易被迁移的比例(γ)和颗粒校正因子(P)反相关。并且,模型对参数d、p的敏感性分别高于参数H和γ。  相似文献
9.
Isoprene emission from plants represents one of the principal biospheric controls over the oxidative capacity of the continental troposphere. In the study reported here, the seasonal pattern of isoprene emission, and its underlying determinants, were studied for aspen trees growing in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. The springtime onset of isoprene emission was delayed for up to 4 weeks following leaf emergence, despite the presence of positive net photosynthesis rates. Maximum isoprene emission rates were reached approximately 6 weeks following leaf emergence. During this initial developmental phase, isoprene emission rates were negatively correlated with leaf nitrogen concentrations. During the autumnal decline in isoprene emission, rates were positively correlated with leaf nitrogen concentration. Given past studies that demonstrate a correlation between leaf nitrogen concentration and isoprene emission rate, we conclude that factors other than the amount of leaf nitrogen determine the early-season initiation of isoprene emission. The late-season decline in isoprene emission rate is interpreted as due to the autumnal breakdown of metabolic machinery and loss of leaf nitrogen. In potted aspen trees, leaves that emerged in February and developed under cool, springtime temperatures did not emit isoprene until 23 days after leaf emergence. Leaves that emrged in July and developed in hot, midsummer temperatures emitted isoprene within 6 days. Leaves that had emerged during the cool spring, and had grown for several weeks without emitting isoprene, could be induced to emit isoprene within 2 h of exposure to 32°C. Continued exposure to warm temperatures resulted in a progressive increase in the isoprene emission rate. Thus, temperature appears to be an important determinant of the early season induction of isoprene emission. The seasonal pattern of isoprene emission was examined in trees growing along an elevational gradient in the Colorado Front Range (1829–2896 m). Trees at different elevations exhibited staggered patterns of bud-break and initiation of photosynthesis and isoprene emission in concert with the staggered onset of warm, springtime temperatures. The springtime induction of isoprene emission could be predicted at each of the three sites as the time after bud break required for cumulative temperatures above 0°C to reach approximately 400 degree days. Seasonal temperature acclimation of isoprene emission rate and photosynthesis rate was not observed. The temperature dependence of isoprene emission rate between 20 and 35°C could be accurately predicted during spring and summer using a single algorithm that describes the Arrhenius relationship of enzyme activity. From these results, it is concluded that the early season pattern of isoprene emission is controlled by prevailing temperature and its interaction with developmental processes. The late-season pattern is determined by controls over leaf nitrogen concentration, especially the depletion of leaf nitrogen during senescence. Following early-season induction, isoprene emission rates correlate with photosynthesis rates. During the season there is little acclimation to temperature, so that seasonal modeling simplifies to a single temperature-response algorithm.  相似文献
10.
Satellite remote sensing of wetlands   总被引:14,自引:0,他引:14  
To conserve and manage wetland resources, it is important to inventoryand monitor wetlands and their adjacent uplands. Satellite remote sensing hasseveral advantages for monitoring wetland resources, especially for largegeographic areas. This review summarizes the literature on satellite remotesensing of wetlands, including what classification techniques were mostsuccessful in identifying wetlands and separating them from other land covertypes. All types of wetlands have been studied with satellite remote sensing.Landsat MSS, Landsat TM, and SPOT are the major satellite systems that have beenused to study wetlands; other systems are NOAA AVHRR, IRS-1B LISS-II and radarsystems, including JERS-1, ERS-1 and RADARSAT. Early work with satellite imageryused visual interpretation for classification. The most commonly used computerclassification method to map wetlands is unsupervised classification orclustering. Maximum likelihood is the most common supervised classificationmethod. Wetland classification is difficult because of spectral confusion withother landcover classes and among different types of wetlands. However,multi-temporal data usually improves the classification of wetlands, as doesancillary data such as soil data, elevation or topography data. Classifiedsatellite imagery and maps derived from aerial photography have been comparedwith the conclusion that they offer different but complimentary information.Change detection studies have taken advantage of the repeat coverage andarchival data available with satellite remote sensing. Detailed wetland maps canbe updated using satellite imagery. Given the spatial resolution of satelliteremote sensing systems, fuzzy classification, subpixel classification, spectralmixture analysis, and mixtures estimation may provide more detailed informationon wetlands. A layered, hybrid or rule-based approach may give better resultsthan more traditional methods. The combination of radar and optical data providethe most promise for improving wetland classification.  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号