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排序方式: 共有167条查询结果,搜索用时 34 毫秒
1.
Interstitial cells of Cajal in the urethra   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
The smooth muscle layer of the urethra generates spontaneous myogenic tone that is thought to make a major contribution to urinary continence. The mechanisms underlying generation of tone remain unclear, however recent studies from our laboratory highlighted a role for a specialised population of pacemaker cells which we originally referred to as interstitial cells (IC) and now term ICC. Urethra ICC possess an electrical pacemaker mechanism characterised by rhythmic activation of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels leading to spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs) under voltage clamp and spontaneous transient depolarisations (STDs) under current clamp conditions. Both STICS and STDs are now known to be associated with spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations that result from a complex interplay between release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores and Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane. In this review we will consider some of the precise mechanisms involved in the generation of pacemaker activity and discuss how these are modulated by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters.  相似文献
2.
Resident macrophages are distributed in the network of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and the myenteric nerve within the myenteric plexus. We evaluated changes in chemoattractant protein mRNA expression in macrophages and neutrophils, the ICC, nerve and macrophages in the myenteric plexus of model rats with TNBS-induced colitis. Chemoattractant proteins, MCP-1, GRO, MIP-2 and CINC-2α were upregulated in the colonic muscle layer after inflammation. Leukocyte infiltration and MPO activity were increased in the muscle layer. Electron microscopy indicated an irregular contour of the myenteric ganglia into which numerous macrophages had penetrated. Macrophages were also distributed near the ICC in the inflamed myenteric plexus. Immunohistochemistry showed that the ICC network and myenteric nerve system had disappeared from the inflamed region, whereas the number of resident macrophages was increased. TTX-insensitive, possibly ICC-mediated, rhythmic contractions of circular smooth muscle strips and enteric neuron-mediated TTX-sensitive peristalsis in the whole proximal colon tissue were significantly inhibited in the inflamed colon, indicating that the ICC-myenteric nerve system was dysfunctional in the inflamed muscle layer. Their accumulation around the myenteric nerve plexus and the ICC network suggests that macrophages play an important role in inducing intestinal dysmotility in gut inflammation.  相似文献
3.
In the adventitia of large arteries, dendritic cells are located between nerve fibers, some of which contain substance P. The aim of the present study was to examine whether neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R) was expressed by dendritic cells in the arterial wall. Parallel sections of aortic and carotid artery segments were immunostained with anti-NK-1R and cell-type-specific antibodies. Dendritic cells in the arterial wall expressed NK-1R, albeit at a low level. Other cells, which intensely expressed NK-1R, were located along the border between the media and adventitia. They did not co-express any dendritic cell markers, including fascin, CD1a, S100, or Lag-antigen, and were negative for CD68, CD3, and mast cell tryptase. These NK-1R+ cells were laser-capture microdissected and studied by means of electron-microscopic analysis. The microdissected cells were in direct contact with nerve endings, and their ultrastructure was typical of the interstitial cells of Cajal present in the gastrointestinal tract. Further systematic electron-microscopic analysis revealed that the cells displaying the features typical of interstitial cells of Cajal were a basic element of the human arterial wall architectonics. Arterial interstitial cells of Cajal were negative for c-kit but they expressed vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 (VIPR1). Destructive alterations of contacts between arterial interstitial cells of Cajal and nerve endings were observed in arterial segments with atherosclerotic lesions. The functional significance of the arterial interstitial cells of Cajal and their possible involvement in atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases need clarification.This work was supported by the St Vincents Clinic Foundation, Sydney, Australia.  相似文献
4.
The generation of functional neuromuscular activity within the pre-natal gastrointestinal tract requires the coordinated development of enteric neurons and glial cells, concentric layers of smooth muscle and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). We investigated the genesis of these different cell types in human embryonic and fetal gut material ranging from weeks 4–14. Neural crest cells (NCC), labelled with antibodies against the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR, entered the foregut at week 4, and migrated rostrocaudally to reach the terminal hindgut by week 7. Initially, these cells were loosely distributed throughout the gut mesenchyme but later coalesced to form ganglia along a rostrocaudal gradient of maturation; the myenteric plexus developed primarily in the foregut, then in the midgut, and finally in the hindgut. The submucosal plexus formed approximately 2–3 weeks after the myenteric plexus, arising from cells that migrated centripetally through the circular muscle layer from the myenteric region. Smooth muscle differentiation, as evidenced by the expression of -smooth muscle actin, followed NCC colonization of the gut within a few weeks. Gut smooth muscle also matured in a rostrocaudal direction, with a large band of -smooth muscle actin being present in the oesophagus at week 8 and in the hindgut by week 11. Circular muscle developed prior to longitudinal muscle in the intestine and colon. ICC emerged from the developing gut mesenchyme at week 9 to surround and closely appose the myenteric ganglia by week 11. By week 14, the intestine was invested with neural cells, longitudinal, circular and muscularis mucosae muscle layers, and an ICC network, giving the fetal gut a mature appearance.A.S.W. is funded by a PhD studentship awarded to A.J.B. by the Child Health Research Appeal Trust.  相似文献
5.
Protein kinases expressed by interstitial cells of Cajal   总被引:6,自引:2,他引:4  
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are involved in the generation of electrical rhythmicity of intestinal muscle and in the transduction of neural inputs in the gut. Although the expression of receptors for neurotransmitters and hormones and some second messengers have been investigated in ICC, the protein kinases present in these cells have not been well documented. This study has demonstrated the immunohistochemical localisation of PKA, PKC and PKC in ICC that were identified by the known ICC marker, c-Kit, in the guinea-pig gut. Other PKCs, PKC , , , , , and , and Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II were not localised in ICC. Double labelling studies were conducted on longitudinal muscle–myenteric plexus and external muscle–myenteric plexus preparations of the oesophagus, stomach (fundus, corpus and antrum), duodenum, distal ileum, caecum, proximal and distal colon, and rectum. The three protein kinases were detected in c-Kit-immunoreactive ICC at the level of the myenteric plexus (IC-MY), in the muscle (IC-IM) and at the level of the deep muscular plexus (IC-DMP) in the small intestine. PKA was found in over 90% of IC-IM in all regions examined, and in over 90% of IC-MY in the gastric body and antrum and throughout the small and large intestines. PKC was in the majority of ICC in the gastric body and antrum and in the small intestine, but was largely absent from ICC in the oesophagus, proximal stomach and large intestine. PKC occurred in the majority of ICC in all regions except the rectum. The intensity of staining was greatest for PKA, with PKC giving comparatively weak labelling of ICC. PKA was also detected in myenteric neurons, smooth muscle, macrophages and fibroblast-like cells. PKC labelling occurred in large, multipolar neurons throughout the small and large intestine, as well as in lymph vessels and in capillaries. It is concluded that PKA, PKC and PKC are all present in ICC, with the differences in their localisations suggesting specific roles for each in ICC function.  相似文献
6.
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) play a role as pacemakers for gastrointestinal movement. Although some in vivo experiments showed that the c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT) and its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), might be required for the development of murine ICCs near birth, in vitro experiments would be useful to clarify the role of SCF-KIT system for the development of ICCs. We attempted to establish a culture system in order to investigate the proliferation of ICCs. Murine gastrointestinal cells from embryos or neonates were cultured with SCF and stained with anti-KIT antibody and/or alcian-blue. The numbers of KIT+ cells a n d alcian-blue+ cells we re counted, and the number of KIT+.alcian-blue- cells, which represent ICCs was calculated. Clusters containing KIT+ cells were formed in culture. The number of KIT+.alcian-blue- cells from day-18 post coitum embryos increased in response to SCF up to a concentration of 50 ng/ml or for 8 days. The number of cells from day-2 post-partum neonates increased for 4 days, and then remained constant in the presence of SCF. In contrast, the number of cells from day-6 post-partum neonates did not increase and remained constant, even in the presence of SCF. ICCs showed a dose-dependent and time-limited proliferation in response to SCF in the in vitro culture system used here in.  相似文献
7.
Interstitial Cajal-like cells in human gallbladder   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
We describe here an interstitial Cajal-like cell type (ICLC) in human gallbladder, resembling the archetypal enteric interstitial cells of Cajal. Gallbladder ICLC were demonstrated in fresh preparations (tissue cryosections) using methylene-blue, and fixed specimens in Epon semi-thin sections stained with toluidine blue or transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The positive diagnosis of gallbladder ICLC was further verified by immunohistochemistry: CD117/c-kit, CD34, and another 16 antigens: vimentin, desmin, nestin, α-smooth muscle actin, NK-1, S-100, PGP-9.5, tau protein, chromogranin A, NSE, GFAP, CD1a, CD62-P, CD68, estrogen and progesterone receptors. Double immunostaining was performed for CD117, CD34 and CD117 and nestin, respectively. In fresh specimens, the spatial density of gallbladder ICLC was 100–110 cells/mm2. ICLC mainly appeared beneath the epithelium and in muscularis (about 7%, and ∼5%, respectively). In toto, ICLC represent in gallbladder ∼5.5% of subepithelial cells. TEM showed that diagnostic criteria were fulfilled by ICLC. Moreover, TEM indicated that the main ultrastructural distinctive feature for ICLC, the cell processes, develop into the characteristic shape at a relatively early stage of development. It remains to be established if, in humans, ICLC are involved in gallbladder (dis)functions (e.g. pace-making, secretion (auto-, juxta- and/or paracrine), intercellular signaling, or stone formation). M. E. Hinescu and C. Ardeleanu contributed equally to this study.  相似文献
8.
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) play a critical role in the control of gastrointestinal motility as pacemaker cells and as regulators of enteric innervation. ICC are one of the first cell types that are injured during an inflammatory process and maintenance of ICC health or promotion of growth and development maybe crucial in recovery after injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of IL-9 in the growth, development and maintenance of ICC in culture. IL-9 in concentrations from 0.02 to 1 microg/ml promoted individual ICC growth and maintenance of the ICC network structure inside tissue explants under culture conditions. The number of ICC grown out of the explants increased significantly at day 4 of culture in the presence of 0.02, 0.5 and 1 microg/ml IL-9. In the presence of 0.5 microg/ml IL-9, explants in culture maintained a higher frequency and stabilized the frequency of spontaneous contractile activity. The ultrastructure of the ICC after 4 days in culture was similar to that in situ. Our data indicate that IL-9 promotes ICC growth in culture and it can be hypothesized that IL-9 is a critical factor in the maintenance of ICC health and ICC repair after injury.  相似文献
9.
Interstitial cell of Cajal-like cells in the upper urinary tract   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Autorhythmicity in the upper urinary tract (UUT) has long been considered to arise in specialized atypical smooth muscle cells (SMC) predominately situated in the most proximal regions of the pyeloureteric system. These atypical SMC pacemakers have been thought to trigger adjacent electrically-quiescent typical SMC to fire action potentials which allow an influx of Ca2+ and the generation of muscle contraction. More recently, the presence of cells with many of the morphological, electrical and immunohistochemical characteristics of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), the pacemaker cells of the gastrointestinal tract, have been located in many regions of both the upper and lower urinary tract. This article reviews the evidence from the literature and from our laboratory supporting a role of both atypical SMC and ICC-like cells in the initiation and propagation of pyeloureteric peristalsis in the UUT. We propose a new model in which there are 2 populations of pacemaker cells, high frequency atypical SMC and lower frequency ICC-like cells, both of which can drive electrically-quiescent typical SMC. The relative presence of these 2 populations of pacemaker cells and the relatively-long refractoriness of typical SMC determines the decreasing frequency of contraction with distance from the renal fornix. In the absence of the proximal pacemaker drive from atypical SMC after pyeloureteral/ureteral obstruction or surgery, ICC-like cell pacemaking provides a compensatory mechanism allowing the ureter to maintain rudimentary peristaltic waves and movement of urine from the pyelon towards the bladder.  相似文献
10.
胚胎小肠Cajal细胞的发育研究   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4  
目的研究人胚胎小肠cajal细胞的发育变化规律。方法采用全层铺片结合切片的免疫细胞化学技术。结果Cajal细胞呈酪氨酸激酶受体(Kit)和波形蛋白(vinlentin)免疫反应阳性。在胚胎发育早期,cajal细胞较少,为单层,稀疏分布于肌间神经丛周围,细胞为梭形,可见两个短而小的突起,未见分支;随着胎龄的增加,Cajal细胞数量增多,胞体增大,突起伸长,并出现分支。此时,肌间神经丛周围的Cajal细胞出现两层,其长轴彼此垂直,分别平行于环行肌和纵行肌。与此同时环行肌层内亦可见少许Cajal细胞;出生前,肌间神经丛部位的Cajal细胞接近成熟,两层细胞的突起进一步增多、伸长,彼此间形成与成人相似的完整的细胞网络。此时深肌丛附近亦可见少量Cajal细胞。结论人的小肠Cajal细胞发育有一定的时间顺序,即肌间神经丛周围最先出现,肌内次之,深肌丛较晚,出生前肌间神经丛周围的Cajal细胞已经接近成熟。这种发育演变若发生异常,可能导致某些胃肠动力障碍性疾病。  相似文献
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