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1.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine produced by macrophages and T lymphocytes that acts through two distinct receptors, TNFR1 (60 kD, CD120a) and TNFR2 (80 kD, CD120b), to affect cellular proliferation, differentiation, survival, and cell death. In addition to its proinflammatory actions in mucosal tissue, TNF is important for liver regeneration. Keratin 8 (K8) and keratin 18 (K18) form intermediate filaments characteristic of liver and other single cell layered, internal epithelia and their derivative cancers. K8-deficient (K8(-)) mice, which escape embryonic lethality, develop inflammatory colorectal hyperplasia, mild liver abnormalities, and tolerate hepatectomy poorly. We show that normal and malignant epithelial cells deficient in K8 and K18 are approximately 100 times more sensitive to TNF-induced death. K8 and K18 both bind the cytoplasmic domain of TNFR2 and moderate TNF-induced, Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) intracellular signaling and NFkappaB activation. Furthermore, K8(-) and K18(-) mice are much more sensitive to TNF dependent, apoptotic liver damage induced by the injection of concanavalin A. This moderation of the effects of TNF may be the fundamental function of K8 and K18 common to liver regeneration, inflammatory bowel disease, hepatotoxin sensitivity, and the diagnostic, persistent expression of these keratins in many carcinomas.  相似文献
2.
Depleted mucosal antioxidant defences in inflammatory bowel disease   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16  
Experimental approaches designed to define the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated by inflammatory cells in the tissue injury seen in inflammatory bowel disease rarely consider the chemical antioxidant defences against such increased oxidant stress in the mucosa. In this investigation, we have analysed components of the aqueous and lipid phase antioxidant mucosal defences by measuring the total peroxyl radical scavenging capacity and the levels of urate, glutathione, -tocopherol, and ubiquinol-10 in paired noninflamed and inflamed mucosal biopsies from inflammatory bowel disease patients. Compared to paired noninflamed mucosa, decreases were observed in inflamed mucosa for total peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (55%, p = 0.0031), urate [Crohn's disease (CD), 62.2%, p = 0.066; ulcerative colitis (UC), 47.3%, p = 0.031], glutathione (UC, 59%, 7/8 patients, ns), total glutathione (UC 65.2%, 6/8 patients, ns), ubiquinol-10 (CD, 75.7%, p = 0.03; UC, 90.5%, p = 0.005). The mean -tocopherol content was unchanged. These observations support our earlier findings of decreased reduced and total ascorbic acid in inflamed IBD mucosa and demonstrate that the loss of chemical antioxidant defences affects almost all the major components. The decreased antioxidant defences may severely compromise the inflamed mucosa, rendering it more susceptible to oxidative tissue damage, hindering recovery of the mucosa and return of epithelial cell layer integrity. The loss of chemical antioxidant components provides a strong rationale for developing novel antioxidant therapies for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.  相似文献
3.
A new therapeutic approach for inflammatory bowel diseases is based on the administration of probiotic bacteria. Prokaryotic DNA contains unmethylated CpG motifs which can activate immune responses, but it is unknown whether bacterial DNA is involved in the beneficial effects obtained by probiotic treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors were incubated with pure DNA of eight probiotic strains and with total bacterial DNA from human feces collected before and after probiotic ingestion. Cytokine production was analyzed in culture supernatants. Modification of human microflora after probiotic administration was proven by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Here we show that Bifidobacterium genomic DNA induced secretion of the antiinflammatory interleukin-10 by PBMC. Total bacterial DNA from feces collected after probiotic administration modulated the immune response by a decrease of interleukin-1 beta and an increase of interleukin-10.  相似文献
4.
Increase in reactive oxygen species plays an integral part in the inflammatory response, and chronic inflammation increases cancer risk. Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX) is well recognized for its antioxidant, and thus anti-inflammatory, activity. However, due to the multiple antioxidant families present in the gastrointestinal tract, it has been difficult to demonstrate the importance of individual antioxidant enzymes. Using genetically altered mice deficient in individual Gpx genes has provided insight into the physiological functions of these genes. Insufficient GPX activity in the mucosal epithelium can trigger acute and chronic inflammation. The presence of certain microflora, such as Helicobacter species, may affect cancer risk significantly. However, when damaged cells have progressed into a precancerous status, increased GPX activity may become procarcinogenic, presumably due to inhibition of hydroperoxide-mediated apoptosis. This review summarizes the current view of GPX in inflammation and cancer with emphasis on the GI tract.  相似文献
5.
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter species are associated with inflammatory bowel disease in rodents and in nonhuman primates. Therefore, we prospectively investigated the presence of Helicobacter species in the intestinal mucosa of patients with and without Crohn's disease by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mucosal fragments were obtained from the ileum, different colon regions, and rectum of 43 patients with Crohn's disease and of 74 patients without inflammatory bowel disease. RESULTS: Helicobacter pylori strains, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were more frequently isolated and PCR-detected in the intestinal mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis-like Crohn's disease than in intestinal mucosa of the control group. Otherwise, anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G levels were significantly lower in fibrostenosing and fistulating Crohn's disease subgroups. No other Helicobacter species were found in the intestinal mucosa of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Although our results suggest an association between the presence of H. pylori in the intestine and ulcerative colitis-like phenotype of Crohn's disease, H. pylori infection in the actual causality of Crohn's disease is still to be determined.  相似文献
6.
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in colonic epithelial HT-29 cells is modulated by the T-cell-derived cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, but is not affected by IL-10 despite its effect in models of colitis. We studied the effects of these cytokines on nitric oxide (NO) production by colonic tissue. IL-10 and IL-4 but not IL-13 suppressed the NO production and iNOS expression by inflamed tissue and cytokine-stimulated noninflamed tissue from patients with ulcerative colitis, whereas the three cytokines suppressed NO production in cytokine-stimulated biopsies from controls. To examine why colonic biopsies and HT-29 cells respond differently to immunomodulatory cytokines, a coculture of mixed mononuclear monocytes (MMC) and HT-29 cells was studied. Treatment of HT-29 cells with conditioned medium from IFN-γ/LPS-stimulated MMC produced significant amounts of NO, which suggested the presence of an MMC-derived soluble factor modifying epithelial NO production. Pretreatment of IFN-γ/LPS-stimulated MMC with IL-10 and IL-4 but not IL-13 suppressed NO production by HT-29 cells. Interestingly, pretreatment of HT-29 cells with IL-1 receptor antagonist suppressed the IFN-γ/LPS-stimulated MMC-induced NO production. These results suggest that immunomodulatory cytokines might exert an inhibitory effect on NO up-regulation by colonic epithelium via the inhibition of MMC-derived soluble mediators, such as IL-1.  相似文献
7.
8.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-) promoter polymorphisms at positions –238 and –308, and to measure the serum CRP levels in CD and UC patients and in a healthy population. The TNF- gene polymorphisms were determined by the PCR-RFLP method. Samples of 74 CD and 50 UC patients and 138 healthy Hungarian volunteers were examined. The GA substitution at position –308 (designated the TNF2 allele) was significantly less frequent among IBD patients than in the control group (P=0.0009); 15% of the CD patients and 18% of the UC patients carried the mentioned allele, which was significantly less frequent compared with the healthy population (33%, P=0.0035 and P=0.036, respectively). No difference in the GA substitution at position –238 was observed. We found the median CRP levels to be significantly higher in the active phase of the disease than in the inactive phase among the –308A allele carriers (P=0.002), while this difference was not significant when the CRP levels in the active and inactive phases were compared among the –308GG homozygous patients (P=0.084). The decreased frequency of the TNF2 allele (known to be associated with elevated TNF- production) in IBD may determine the severity of IBD through its interaction with plasma CRP levels, and may modify the pathogenesis of this chronic inflammatory disease.  相似文献
9.
Bacteroides, a predominant commensal bacteria in the gut, are thought to be responsible for the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, we examined whether or not bifidobacteria suppress B. vulgatus, a representative pathogenic Bacteroides species, in both the coculture system and the gnotobiotic murine model. As a result, Bifidobacterium infantis 1222 highly inhibited the growth of B. vulgatus in the coculture and also significantly suppressed the systemic antibody response raised by B. vulgatus colonizing the gut in gnotobiotic mice. Colonization of the mice by B. vulgatus increased the number of Peyer's patch (PP) cells bearing PNA (peanut agglutinin)+/anti-kappa+ phenotype, which represents plasma cell-like B cells. Moreover, treatment of those B. vulgatus-implanted mice with B. infantis 1222 abrogated such increase in the number of PNA+/anti-kappa+ cells. These results thus suggested that B. infantis 1222 protected the gut epithelial layer including the PP from being invaded by Bacteroides, thereby suppressing the systemic antibody response raised by Bacteroides.  相似文献
10.
Studies on purine enzymes in experimental colitis   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
Although the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA), adenylate deaminase (AMP-DA), purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is well documented in gastric and intestinal carcinoma, their role in inflammatory bowel diseases remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the profile of these enzymes in blood and intestinal tissues during colitis. Colitis induced in Wistar rats by acetic acid was monitored by a marker enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). The tissue levels of MPO increased on 1, 2, 5 and 6 days post-administration (PA) of acetic acid and declined to the control levels by day 7 PA. In parallel the blood levels of ADA and AMP-DA decreased on days 1, 2 and 5 without any significant change on days 6 and 7 PA. Similar observations were recorded for these enzymes in the cytosolic extracts of colonic tissue specimens. In contrast, PNP remained unaltered in both blood and tissue samples. These findings suggest an inverse-relationship between inflammation and purine deaminases in both blood and tissues.  相似文献
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