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1.
诱导性多潜能干细胞(iPS cells)——现状及前景展望   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7       下载免费PDF全文
主要从 iPS细胞发展历程、获得 iPS细胞的几个关键步骤 (如基因导入方式、诱导 iPS细胞所需因子组合与小分子化合物运用和体细胞种类选择等)、病人或疾病特异性 iPS细胞、iPS细胞体内外诱导分化与其衍生物的临床应用和制备无遗传修饰的(genetic modification-free) iPS细胞的可行性与前景等方面对 iPS细胞最新研究进展做评述.日本和美国研究小组先后用4种基因将小鼠(2006年8月)和人(2007年11~12月)的体细胞在体外重编程为诱导性多潜能干细胞(induced pluripotent stem cells,iPS cells),此后在短短两年多时间内,iPS 细胞的研究和关注度呈爆炸式增长.体细胞重编程、去分化和多潜能干细胞来源等一系列热点问题再次成为干细胞和发育生物学等研究的热点和焦点.与胚胎干细胞(embryonic stem cells,ES cells)一样,iPS细胞在体内可分化为3个胚层来源的所有细胞,进而参与形成机体所有组织和器官.迄今,在体外已由 iPS细胞定向诱导分化出功能性的多种成熟细胞.因此,iPS细胞研究不仅具有重要理论意义,而且在再生医学、组织工程和药物发现与评价等方面极具应用价值.  相似文献
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Renewal of stem cells differs from cancer cell growth in self-controlled cell division. The mir-302 microRNA (miRNA) family (mir-302s) is expressed most abundantly in slow-growing human embryonic stem (ES) cells, and quickly decreases after cell differentiation and proliferation. Therefore, mir-302s was investigated as one of the key factors essential for maintenance of ES cell renewal and pluripotency in this study. The Pol-II-based intronic miRNA expression system was used to transgenically transfect the mir-302s into several human cancer cell lines. The mir-302 – transfected cells, namely, miRNA-induced pluripotent stem (mirPS) cells, not only expressed many key ES cell markers, such as Oct3/4, SSEA-3, SSEA-4 ,Sox2, and Nanog, but also had a highly demethylated genome similar to a reprogrammed zygotic genome. Microarray analyses further revealed that genome-wide gene expression patterns between the mirPS and human ES H1 and H9 cells shared over 86% similarity. Using molecular guidance in vitro, these mirPS cells could differentiate into distinct tissue cell types, such as neuron-, chondrocyte-, fibroblast-, and spermatogonia-like primordial cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that mir-302s not only function to reprogram cancer cells into an ES-like pluripotent state but also to maintain this state under a feeder-free cultural condition, which may offer a great opportunity for therapeutic intervention.  相似文献
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诱导多潜能干细胞(iPSCs)的研究与应用进展   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
诱导多潜能干细胞(induced pluripotent stem cells,iPSCs)是体细胞在外源因子作用下,经直接细胞核程序重整而重新获得多潜能的干细胞.iPSCs在疾病的模型建立与机理研究、细胞治疗、药物的发现与评价等方面有着巨大的潜在应用价值.在过去几年中,科学家们致力于改进体细胞重编程技术并取得许多突破.然而,为实现其在临床上的应用,必须克服体细胞重编程效率低和iPSCs成瘤风险两大挑战,而且重编程机制有待进一步阐明.结合iPSCs最新研究成果,评述了有关领域国内外研究进展,重点讨论当前存在问题,并展望未来研究方向.  相似文献
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限定因子诱导胎猪成纤维细胞重编程为多能性细胞   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
尝试运用限定因子融合蛋白建立猪的诱导多能性干细胞.试验采用Oct4、Sox2、Klf4、c-Myc四种限定因子经慢病毒表达载体系统介导感染猪胎儿成纤维细胞,对表达外源限定因子的猪胎儿成纤维细胞进行培养传代,逐步分离培养出集落边缘界限清晰的细胞克隆,细胞集落生长状态稳定、核型正常、碱性磷酸酶检测为阳性,免疫细胞化学检测显示,Oct4、Nanog、SSEA-1蛋白表达为阳性,体内能够分化形成含有三个胚层的畸胎瘤.结果证实分离培养的细胞克隆为猪诱导多能性干细胞,为进一步完善诱导方案和深入研究应用猪诱导多能性干细胞奠定了基础.  相似文献
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Disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) allow unprecedented experimental platforms for basic research as well as high-throughput screening. This may be particularly relevant for neuropsychiatric disorders, in which the affected neuronal cells are not accessible. Keratinocytes isolated from hair follicles are an ideal source of patients' cells for reprogramming, due to their non-invasive accessibility and their common neuroectodermal origin with neurons, which can be important for potential epigenetic memory. From a small number of plucked human hair follicles obtained from two healthy donors we reprogrammed keratinocytes to pluripotent iPSC. We further differentiated these hair follicle-derived iPSC to neural progenitors, forebrain neurons and functional dopaminergic neurons.This study shows that human hair follicle-derived iPSC can be differentiated into various neural lineages, suggesting this experimental system as a promising in vitro model to study normal and pathological neural developments, avoiding the invasiveness of commonly used skin biopsies.  相似文献
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特定因子诱导多能干细胞   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
胚胎干细胞由于具有发育上的全能性,被认为是用于移植治疗的最佳来源。然而,由于人的胚胎干细胞直接运用引发免疫排斥以及触及伦理矛盾,人们一直在研发多能干细胞。2006年,多能干细胞的研究有了重大进展。首先,Yamanaka实验室构建用逆转录载体将候选因子导入成纤维细胞,而后检测多能性标志基因的表达。结果发现,四种因子Oct3/4、Sox2、c-Myc以及Klf4的组合产生了表达多能性标志基因才有的抗药性的克隆,意味着细胞获得了多能性。用这种方法筛选的细胞无论在形态和增殖分化能力方面均类似于干细胞,而且表达干细胞标志基因以及在体内外能向三个胚层的细胞类型分化,这种细胞被命名为诱导性多能干细胞(iPS细胞)。进一步,用更严格的筛选基因nanog得到的iPS能够嵌合到生殖系中。而后,运用改进的方法从人的成体成纤维细胞也可以得到iPS细胞。然而,这种方法得到的嵌合体小鼠存在肿瘤形成现象,可能是由于c-Myc逆转录病毒整合到了基因组。通过替代的方法,去掉c-Myc的iPS也能够获得。为了进一步降低肿瘤形成的几率,近来发展了一种不依赖于病毒的方法,用质粒载体作为介质。iPS进一步的研究热点在于安全性以及从更严格的医学角度提高诱导iPS的效率,其分子机理和相关的技术问题也有待解决和克服。  相似文献
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We have developed a new simple method to induce serotonergic neurons from embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem cells. When ES or induced pluripotent stem cells were cultured on a thick gel layer of Matrigel, most colonies extended TuJ1-positive neurites. We found that noggin, a known antagonist of bone morphogenic protein, induces ES cells to express genes involved in serotonergic differentiation, such as Nkx2.2, Pet-1, Sonic hedgehog, tryptophan hydroxylase 2, and serotonin transporter, as well as increases high potassium-induced release of serotonin. To concentrate serotonergic neurons, ES cells carrying Pet-1-enhancer-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein were differentiated and sorted into about 80% pure cultures of serotonergic neurons. Whole cell voltage-clamp recordings showed a voltage-dependent current in dissociated neurons. This simplified method provides an alternative option for serotonergic differentiation of pluripotent stem cells and will likely contribute a deeper understanding regarding the nature of serotonergic neurons and open new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.  相似文献
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牛sox2基因的克隆及重组反转录病毒载体的构建   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
为了构建包含牛sox2基因编码序列的重组反转录病毒载体,获得有感染性的病毒颗粒,本研究以胎牛原始生殖嵴为材料,用RT-PCR方法克隆出牛sox2基因的开放阅读框序列,将其亚克隆至pMD18-T载体并测序。结果表明获得的基因片段与发表的牛sox2基因序列(Gen Bank Accession No.NM-001105463)高度同源;将测序正确的重组T载体用EcoRI和BglII酶切,基因片段插入反转录病毒载体pMSCVneo的相同酶切位点,成功构建了重组反转录病毒载体pMSCV-sox2。采用脂质体法用pMSCV-sox2转染包装细胞PT67,同时用pMIG(含绿色荧光蛋白)作为阳性对照,经流式细胞仪测定,该载体转染效率达到68.3%;转染后PT67细胞经G418筛选得到稳定的产毒细胞株,其病毒滴度达8.16×107CFU/mL,为下一步特定因子诱导牛体细胞转变为牛iPS细胞的研究奠定了基础。  相似文献
10.

Background

Dopamine neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells have been widely studied for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, various difficulties remain to be overcome, such as tumor formation, fragility of dopamine neurons, difficulty in handling large numbers of dopamine neurons, and immune reactions. In this study, human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived precursors of dopamine neurons were encapsulated in agarose microbeads. Dopamine neurons in microbeads could be handled without specific protocols, because the microbeads protected the fragile dopamine neurons from mechanical stress.

Methods

hiPS cells were seeded on a Matrigel-coated dish and cultured to induce differentiation into a dopamine neuronal linage. On day 18 of culture, cells were collected from the culture dishes and seeded into U-bottom 96-well plates to induce cell aggregate formation. After 5 days, cell aggregates were collected from the plates and microencapsulated in agarose microbeads. The microencapsulated aggregates were cultured for an additional 45 days to induce maturation of dopamine neurons.

Results

Approximately 60% of all cells differentiated into tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in agarose microbeads. The cells released dopamine for more than 40 days. In addition, microbeads containing cells could be cryopreserved.

Conclusion

hiPS cells were successfully differentiated into dopamine neurons in agarose microbeads.

General significance

Agarose microencapsulation provides a good supporting environment for the preparation and storage of dopamine neurons.  相似文献
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