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1.
遗传多样性与濒危植物保护生物学研究进展   总被引:39,自引:3,他引:36       下载免费PDF全文
尽管对于濒危物种的遗传学人们已经进行了大量研究,但是种群遗传学在植物保护中的实际地位尚存在很大争议。濒危物种的遗传多样性可能会由于遗传漂变、近交的作用而丧失;但这种丧失更可能是濒危的结果而不是濒危的起因。遗传多样性水平与物种生存力之间没有任何必然的联系。但植物种群遗传结构如果由于自交不亲和等位基因的丧失和与亲缘种杂交造成的遗传同化而发生改变,那么它对物种生存力会产生明显负作用。  相似文献
2.
植物交酸系统的进化、资源分配对策与遗传多样性   总被引:37,自引:10,他引:27       下载免费PDF全文
影响植物自交率进化的选择力量主要体现在两个方面:当外来花粉量不足时,自交可以提高植物的结实率,即雌性适合度(繁殖保障);而如果进行自交的花粉比异交花粉更易获得使胚珠受精的机会,那么自交也可以提高植物的雄性适合度(自动选择优势)。但是,鉴别什么时候是繁殖保障、什么时候是自动选择优势导致了自交的进化却是极其困难的。花粉贴现降低了自交植物通过异交花粉途径获得的适合度,即减弱了自动选择优势,而近交衰退既减少了自动选择优势也减少了繁残给自交者带来的利益。具有不同交配系统的植物种群将具有不同的资源分配对策。理论研究已经说明,自交率增加将减少植物对雄性功能的资源分配比例,但将使繁殖分配加大,而且在一定条件下交配系统在改变甚至可以导致植物生活史发生剧烈变化,即从多年生变为一年生。文献中支持自交减少植物雄性投入的证据有很多,但是对繁殖分配与自交率的关系目前还没有系统的研究,资源分配理论可以解释植物繁育系统的多样性,尤其是能够3说明为什么大多数植物都是雌雄同体的,自交对植物种群遗传结构的影响是减少种群内的遗传变异,增加种群间的遗传分化,长期以来人们一直猜测,自交者可能会丢掉一些长期进化的潜能,目前这个假说得到了一些支持。  相似文献
3.
Noninvasive paternity assignment in Gombe chimpanzees   总被引:20,自引:0,他引:20  
The relative success of chimpanzee male mating strategies, the role of male dominance rank and the success of inbreeding avoidance behaviour can only be assessed when paternities are known. We report the probable paternities of 14 chimpanzees included in a long-term behavioural study of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. DNA samples were collected noninvasively from shed hair and faeces and genotyped using 13-16 microsatellite loci characterized in humans. All 14 offspring could be assigned to fathers within the community. While there is a positive relationship between male rank and reproductive success, we demonstrate that a range of male mating strategies (possessiveness, opportunistic mating and consortships) can lead to paternity across all male ranks. Several adult females were at risk of breeding with close male relatives. Most successfully avoided close inbreeding but in one case a high-ranking male in the community mated with his mother and produced an offspring. In contrast to recent data on chimpanzees (P. t. verus) from the Taï forest, Côte d'Ivoire, no evidence of extra-group paternity was observed in our study. Reanalysis of Taï data using a likelihood approach casts doubt on the occurrence of extra-group paternity in that community as well.  相似文献
4.
黄山钓桥青冈种群的交配系统与近交衰退   总被引:20,自引:2,他引:18       下载免费PDF全文
陈小勇  宋永昌 《生态学报》1997,17(5):462-468
采用垂直板型不连续聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳检测了黄山钓桥青冈种群的遗传变异、交配系统及近交衰退程度。黄山钓桥青冈群维持有中等程度的遗传变异,多态位点百分比和期望杂合度分别为50%和0.1814。采用POD-2、EST-1和EST-2等3个多态位点,利用MLT程序估计的花粉库和母株基因频率之间存在一些差异,可能是由于成熟个体花粉产量不同和种群内个体非随机分布造成的。单位点杂交率平均为0.392,略高于多位  相似文献
5.
居群遗传学原理及其在珍稀濒危植物保护中的应用   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19       下载免费PDF全文
居群遗传学在珍稀濒危植物保护研究中有着重要的应用价值。本文首先介绍了居群遗传学中的几个重要概念──有效居群大小、近交繁殖、遗传漂变和基因流,然后详细叙述了居群遗传学原理在珍稀濒危植物保护中的应用途径和前景。  相似文献
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8.
Major histocompatibility complex variation in the Arabian oryx   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13  
In the 1960s, the Arabian oryx was one of the most endangered species in the world, extinct in the wild and surviving in only a few captive herds. The present day population of over 2000 descends from a small number of founders and may have restricted genetic variation for important adaptive genes. We have examined the amount of genetic variation for a class II gene in the major histocompatibility complex thought to be the most important genetic basis for pathogen resistance in vertebrates. We found three very divergent alleles, which on average, differed by 24 nucleotides and 15 amino acids in the 236-bp fragment we examined. Using single-strand conformation polymorphism, we found that in a sample of 57 animals, the alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg proportions, although one allele was found only in four heterozygous individuals. The average heterozygosity for the 22 amino acid positions involved in antigen binding was 0.165, three times as high as that for the 56 amino acids not involved with antigen binding. Because the three alleles have such divergent sequences, it is likely that they may recognize peptides from quite different pathogens. As a result, maintenance of these variants should be considered as a goal in the captive breeding program of the Arabian oryx.  相似文献
9.
Although inbreeding depression is a major genetic phenomena influencing individual fitness, it is difficult to measure in wild populations. An alternative approach is to correlate heterozygosity, measured using highly polymorphic markers, with a fitness-correlated trait. In clonal plants, genet size is predicted to be fitness correlated. Here we test the prediction that the genet size distribution of the marine clonal plant Zostera marina (eelgrass) is influenced by inbreeding depression. We used nine polymorphic microsatellite markers to access the fine scale clonal structure and to measure individual heterozygosity within 4 plots (each corresponds to 256 m2, sampled at 1-m intervals) in two populations along the German Baltic Coast. The same plots were also sampled for flowering and vegetative shoots to obtain estimates for sexual reproductive output at the level of the genetic individual. We found substantial differences in the genet size distribution between the two populations that may be explained by different disturbance frequency. In both populations, clone size was significantly positively correlated with the total number of flowering shoots, indicating that larger clones have a higher reproductive output. Individual heterozygosity was significantly positively associated with clone size. The effect was much stronger in Falkenstein (low disturbance) than in Maasholm (high disturbance). The results indicate that in a low disturbance population the relatively outbred clones occupy a higher proportion of the available space, possibly because they outcompete relatively inbred neighbours.  相似文献
10.
Cultivated alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an autotetraploid. However, all three existing alfalfa genetic maps resulted from crosses of diploid alfalfa. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the use of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) DNA markers for mapping in diploid and tetraploid alfalfa. Ten SSR markers were incorporated into an existing F2 diploid alfalfa RFLP map and also mapped in an F2 tetraploid population. The tetraploid population had two to four alleles in each of the loci examined. The segregation of these alleles in the tetraploid mapping population generally was clear and easy to interpret. Because of the complexity of tetrasomic linkage analysis and a lack of computer software to accommodate it, linkage relationships at the tetraploid level were determined using a single-dose allele (SDA) analysis, where the presence or absence of each allele was scored independently of the other alleles at the same locus. The SDA diploid map was also constructed to compare mapping using SDA to the standard co-dominant method. Linkage groups were generally conserved among the tetraploid and the two diploid linkage maps, except for segments where severe segregation distortion was present. Segregation distortion, which was present in both tetraploid and diploid populations, probably resulted from inbreeding depression. The ease of analysis together with the abundance of SSR loci in the alfalfa genome indicated that SSR markers should be a useful tool for mapping tetraploid alfalfa. Received: 10 September 1999 / Accepted: 11 November 1999  相似文献
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