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1.  Most species' surveys and biodiversity inventories are limited by time and money. Therefore, it would be extremely useful to develop predictive models of animal distributions based on habitat, and to use these models to estimate species' densities and range sizes in poorly sampled regions.
2.  In this study, two sets of data were collected. The first set consisted of over 2000 butterfly transect counts, which were used to determine the relative density of each species in 16 major habitat types in a 35-km2 area of fragmented landscape in north-west Wales. For the second set of data, the area was divided into 140 cells using a 500-m grid, and the extent of each habitat and the presence or absence of each butterfly and moth species was determined for each cell.
3.  Logistic regression was used to model the relationship between species' distribution and predicted density, based on habitat extent, in each grid square. The resultant models were used to predict butterfly distributions and occupancy at a range of spatial scales.
4.  Using a jack-knife procedure, our models successfully reclassified the presence or absence of species in a high percentage of grid squares (mean 83% agreement). There were highly significant relationships between the modelled probability of species occurring at regional and local scales and the number of grid squares occupied at those scales.
5.  We conclude that basic habitat data can be used to predict insect distributions and relative densities reasonably well within a fragmented landscape. It remains to be seen how accurate these predictions will be over a wider area.  相似文献
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To test whether ithomiine butterfly species within Miillerian mimetic classes are associated in space and time, we sampled a community of ithomiine butterflies at monthly intervals with traps in the canopy and the understory of four forest habitats: primary, higrade, secondary and edge. A species accumulation curve reached an asymptote at 22 species, suggesting that these species have a greater preference for feeding on fruit juices than other ithomiines known to occur at the study site. Species richness and individual abundance showed marked temporal variation, and there were slight differences in the distribution of species richness and individual abundance among the four habitats. The 22 species sampled in this study were not stratified vertically. The five mimetic colour classes of these butterflies were unequally distributed among the four habitats and over the course of the twelve months. There is suggestive evidence that co-mimic species occurred in the same habitats, and strong evidence that they occurred at the same times. Habitat and temporal effects each contributed approximately 10% to the total mimetic class diversity, with the temporal effect being slightly larger than that of habitat. This study demonstrates that Müllerian co-mimic associations can be measured on a much smaller scale than has been done previously.  相似文献
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East African sunbirds (Nectariniidae) vary in the degree to which they use open habitats and forest habitats. Species that use open habitats may experience more extreme temperatures and greater exposure to solar radiation than those in forest habitats. Basal rates of metabolism, body temperature and thermal conductance were compared for open habitat- and forest-associated sunbirds from Kibale National Park, Uganda. Variation in basal rate of metabolism was associated with body mass, but there was no difference between forest and open habitat species. Variation in body temperature was not associated with body mass or habitat. Variation in thermal conductance was associated with body mass and habitat; open habitat species were characterized by significantly lower thermal conductances than forest species. Because reduced thermal conductance may decrease energy expenditure at low ambient temperatures and reduce exogenous heat gain at high ambient temperatures, this difference may optimize energy expenditure when temperatures are highly variable. This suggests a mechanism by which physiological characteristics may influence energetic consequences of habitat selection.  相似文献
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Pattern in the distribution of Britain's upland breeding birds   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
We use a quantitative approach to identify fifty-eight species of birds which breed in association with the British uplands. Similarities and differences between this list of 'upland birds' and previous more subjective lists are discussed. We then study pattern in the distribution of these species throughout the uplands. A high degree of regionalization is found, and interpreted in terms of the habitat composition of different regions, and known bird–habitat associations. Different regions differ widely, not only with respect to their bird species composition, but also in the number and conservation importance of their upland bird assemblages. In particular, we contrast the uplands of Wales and England with those of Scotland. The Welsh and English uplands contain a relatively low number of upland bird assemblages and are divided into a few large regions, each dominated by a single assemblage type. In comparison, the Scottish uplands are more varied, both in terms of the total number of assemblages, and the range of assemblages found at a small scale. The study provides a means of viewing any upland region within the national context.  相似文献
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The trophic and spatial interrelationships between a native ( Galaxias vulguris Stokell, Galaxiidae) and an exotic ( Salmo trutta L., Salmonidae) fish species were investigated over a 24-h period in a New Zealand stream. Interspecific overlap in feeding was greatest at dusk and dawn, as G. vulgaris fed primarily from dusk to post-dawn and S. trutta fed primarily from pre-dawn to post-dusk. Both species fed mainly on benthic and drifting aquatic invertebrates, with larval Deleatidium (Ephemeroptera). Hydora (Coleoptera) and Chironomidae (Diptera) being their preferred prey, although Trichoptera imagos were also preferred by S. trutta . Both species were found primarily in runs and riffles with G. vulgaris occupying slightly shallower (≤0.3 m) and faster (0.3–0.7 m s1) waters than did S. trutta (≤0.5 m deep and 0.2–0.4 m s−1 water velocity). We suggest that these rather subtle interspecifc differences in die1 feeding periodicities, diets and microdistributions play a part in lessening the interaction between co-occurring populations of G. wlguris and S. trutta .  相似文献
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