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Immunogenic HER-2/neu peptides as tumor vaccines   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
During the last decade, a large number of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) have been identified, which can be recognized by T cells. This has led to renewed interest in the use of active immunization as a modality for the treatment of cancer. HER-2/neu is a 185-KDa receptor-like glycoprotein that is overexpressed by a variety of tumors including breast, ovarian, lung, prostate and colorectal carcinomata. Several immunogenic HER-2/neu peptides recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) or helper T lymphocytes (TH) have been identified thus far. Patients with HER-2/neu over-expressing cancers exhibit increased frequencies of peripheral blood T cells recognizing immunogenic HER-2/neu peptides. Various protocols for generating T cell-mediated immune responses specific for HER-2/neu peptides have been examined in pre-clinical models or in clinical trials. Vaccination studies in animals utilizing HER-2/neu peptides have been successful in eliminating tumor growth. In humans, however, although immunological responses have been detected against the peptides used for vaccination, no clinical responses have been described. Because HER-2/neu is a self-antigen, functional immune responses against it may be limited through tolerance mechanisms. Therefore, it would be interesting to determine whether abrogation of tolerance to HER-2/neu using appropriate adjuvants and/or peptide analogs may lead to the development of immune responses to HER-2/neu epitopes that can be of relevance to cancer immunotherapy. Vaccine preparations containing mixtures of HER-2/neu peptides and peptide from other tumor-related antigens might also enhance efficacy of therapeutic vaccination. This article is a symposium paper from the conference “Progress in Vaccination against Cancer 2004 (PIVAC 4)”, held in Freudenstadt-Lauterbad, Black Forest, Germany, on 22–25 September 2004  相似文献
3.
Dimerization is essential for activity of human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER1/EGFR, HER2/ErbB2, HER3/ErbB3, and ErbB4) and mediates intracellular signaling events leading to cancer cell proliferation, survival, and resistance to therapy. HER2 is the preferred dimerization partner. Activation of HER signaling pathways may be blocked by inhibition of dimer formation using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against the dimerization domain of HER2. The murine MAb 2C4 that specifically binds the HER2 dimerization domain was cloned as a chimeric antibody, humanized using a computer-generated model to guide framework substitutions, and variants were tested as Fabs. Pharmacokinetics and toxicology were evaluated in rodents and cynomolgus monkeys. Cloning the variable domains of MAb 2C4 into a vector containing human kappa and CH1 domains allowed construction of a mouse-human chimeric Fab. DNA sequencing of the chimeric clone permitted identification of CDR residues. The full-length IgG1 of variant F-10 was equivalent in binding to chimeric IgG1 and was designated pertuzumab (rhuMAb 2C4; Omnitarg). Pertuzumab pharmacokinetics was best described by a two-compartment model with a distribution phase of <1 day, terminal half-life of ~10 days, and volume of distribution of ~40 mL/kg that approximates serum volume. With the exception of diarrhea, pertuzumab was generally well tolerated in cynomolgus monkeys. Pertuzumab, a recombinant humanized IgG1 MAb, is the first of a new class of agents known as HER dimerization inhibitors. Inhibition of HER dimerization may be an effective anticancer strategy in tumors with either normal or elevated expression of HER2.  相似文献
4.
Immunological inhibition of carcinogenesis   总被引:6,自引:1,他引:5  
The combination of new information provided by fundamental immunology, along with the refinement of genetic engineering techniques has given scientists the capacity to produce vaccines able to inhibit the growth of most if not every transplantable tumor. However, when faced with already established tumors, vaccines fail to afford any significant protection. Many studies are underway which seek to overcome this gloomy situation. However, another possibility is to follow the indications provided by a large quantity of experimental data and to evaluate the possibility of using immunotherapy to prevent the initial stages of tumor growth. Is it possible to prevent an autologous tumor by means of a vaccination performed before tumor onset? Could antitumor vaccines be a new form of preventive medicine in the wake of Jenner, Pasteur, and other pioneers? In this paper it is our intention to review the results obtained by our laboratory in the attempt to use natural and adaptive immunity in the control of carcinogenesis. Natural immunity boosted by IL-12 and IL-2 significantly hampers the progression of mammary lesions occurring in HER-2/neu transgenic mice genetically predestined to develop lethal mammary carcinomas. Specific immunity elicited by DNA vaccination provides a much stronger inhibition of the development of mammary lesions, and a significant number of transgenic mice are tumor free at 1 year of age. These experimental data suggest the possibility of using immunity as a means of controlling preneoplastic lesions and protecting healthy persons at risk of developing cancer.  相似文献
5.
BACKGROUND: Growth factors and Herceptin specifically and differentially modulate cell proliferation of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of action on erbB-receptor level is incompletely understood. We evaluated Herceptin's capacity to modulate erbB-receptor activation and interaction on the cell surface level and thereby potentially impair cell proliferation of HER2/neu (c-erbB2) overexpressing breast cancer cells, both in the presence and absence of relevant growth factors. METHODS: BT474 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines were treated with Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Heregulin, and with Herceptin in different combinations. Kinetics of cell proliferation were evaluated flow cytometrically based on BrdU-labeling. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, ELISAs and phosphorylation site specific Western Blotting was performed to investigate erbB-receptor interaction and activation. RESULTS: EGF induced EGFR/EGFR and EGFR/c-erbB2 interactions correlate with stimulation of cell proliferation in BT474 cells. Both homo- and heterodimerization are considerably less pronounced in SK-BR-3 cells and heterointeraction is additionally reduced by EGF treatment, causing inhibition of cell proliferation. Heregulin stimulates cell proliferation extensively in both cell lines. Herceptin drives BT474 cells more efficiently into quiescence than it does with SK-BR-3 cells and thereby blocks cell cycle progress. In SK-BR-3 Herceptin treatment causes c-erbB2 phosphorylation of Y877 and Y1248, EGF induces Y877 and Y1112 phosphorylation. The Y1112 phosphorylation site, activated by EGF in SK-BR-3 cell, is bypassed in BT474. In addition the inhibitory capacity of Herceptin on BT474 and SK-BR-3 cell proliferation depends on the presence and absence of growth factors to a various extent. CONCLUSION: The growth inhibitory effect of Herceptin on c-erbB2 overexpressing breast cancer cells is considerably modulated by EGFR coexpression and consequently EGFR/c-erbB2 homo- and heterointeractions, as well as the presence or absence of growth factors. C-erbB2 overexpression alone is insufficient to predict the impact of growth factors and antibodies on cell proliferation. The optimization and specification of therapeutic approaches based on erbB-receptor targeting requires to account for EGFR coexpression as well as the potential presence of erbB-receptor relevant growth factors.  相似文献
6.
Way TD  Kao MC  Lin JK 《FEBS letters》2005,579(1):145-152
We have shown that exposure of the HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells to apigenin resulted in induction of apoptosis by depleting HER2/neu protein and, in turn, suppressing the signaling of the HER2/HER3-PI3K/Akt pathway. Here, we examined whether inhibition of this pathway played a role in the anti-tumor effect. The results revealed that treatment with apigenin induced apoptosis through cytochrome c release and caused a rapid induction of caspase-3 activity and stimulated proteolytic cleavage of DFF-45. Furthermore, apigenin downregulated cyclin D1, D3 and Cdk4 and increased p27 protein levels. Colony formation in the soft agar assay, a hallmark of the transformation phenotype, was preferentially suppressed in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells in the presence of apigenin. In addition, a structure-activity relationship study indicated that (1) the position of B ring; and (2) the existence of the 3', 4'-hydroxyl group on the 2-phenyl group were important for the depletion of HER2/neu protein by flavonoids. These results provided new insights into the structure-activity relationship of flavonoids.  相似文献
7.
Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her2, ErbB-2) contributes to the progression and metastasis of breast cancer, implying that Her2 gene is a suitable target of RNA interference (RNAi) for breast cancer therapy. Here, we employed plasmid-mediated expression of 2 different Her2-shRNAs (pU6-Her2shRNAs) efficiently silenced the target gene expression on Her2 expressing SKBR-3 breast cancer cells in both mRNA and protein levels. Consequently, pU6-Her2shRNA increased apoptosis and reduced proliferation of SKBR-3 cells assayed by TUNEL and MTT, respectively. In vivo, intra-tumor injection of pU6-Her2shRNA inhibited the growth of SKBR-3 tumors inoculated subcutaneously in nude mice. Furthermore, pU6-Her2shRNA synergized the tumor suppression effect of epirubicin to SKBR-3 cells in vitro and implanted subcutaneously in nude mice. Therefore, we concluded that stable silencing of Her2 gene expression with plasmid expressing shRNA may hold great promise as a novel therapy for Her2 expressing breast cancers alone or in combination with anthracycline chemotherapy.  相似文献
8.
Over the past years, monoclonal antibodies have attracted enormous interest as targeted therapeutics, and a number of such reagents are in clinical use. However, responses could not be achieved in all patients with tumors expressing high levels of the respective target antigens, suggesting that other factors such as limited recruitment of endogenous immune effector mechanisms can also influence treatment outcome. This justifies the search for alternative, potentially more effective reagents. Antibody-toxins and cytolytic effector cells genetically modified to carry antibody-based receptors on the surface, represent such tailor-made targeting vehicles with the potential of improved tumor localization and enhanced efficacy. In this way, advances in recombinant antibody technology have made it possible to circumvent problems inherent in chemical coupling of antibodies and toxins, and have allowed construction via gene fusion of recombinant molecules which combine antibody-mediated recognition of tumor cells with specific delivery of potent protein toxins of bacterial or plant origin. Likewise, recombinant antibody fragments provide the basis for the construction of chimeric antigen receptors that, upon expression in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or natural killer (NK) cells, link antibody-mediated recognition of tumor antigens with these effector cells potent cytolytic activities, thereby making them promising cellular therapeutics for adoptive cancer therapy. Here, general principles for the derivation of cytotoxic proteins and effector cells with antibody-dependent tumor specificity are summarized, and current strategies to employ these molecules and cells for directed cancer therapy are discussed, focusing mainly on the tumor-associated antigens epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the closely related ErbB2 (HER2) as targets.This work was presented at the first Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy Summer School, 8–13 September 2003, Ionian Village, Bartholomeio, Peloponnese, Greece.  相似文献
9.
The HER-2 antigen, which is overexpressed in many breast carcinomas, is an ideal target for monoclonal antibodies due to its low expression in normal tissue and its homogeneous distribution in the tumor mass. We have developed and characterized the murine MAb MGR6 against HER-2, which is able to inhibit proliferation of tumor cells overexpressing HER-2. On the basis of these preclinical results, phase I studies in breast carcinoma patients were conducted and radiolocalization data indicated an antibody half life which directly paralleled that of other whole antibodies and thus resulting in a limited in vivo diagnostic capacity. To obtain a smaller reagent with possibly improved in vivo properties, a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of the original MGR6-producing hybridoma was generated by phage display technology. Biologically active MGR6 scFv was purified rapidly and at high yield by metal affinity chromatography. Competition FACS and ELISA analyses identified an epitope on the HER-2 extracellular domain that was shared by the scFv and the parental MAb. BIAcore analysis indicated a Koff of 9.3 × 10−4 s−1, similar to that of the intact MGR6 MAb. Distribution and elimination half-lives of MGR6 scFv, calculated from in vivo preclinical evaluations, were much faster (13 min and 6.2 h, respectively) than previously published results for the intact MAb (mean t1/2β of 46 h). This represents a theoretical improvement in pharmacokinetics with respect to the parental murine MAb and points to the potential for utilizing this fragment in redirecting therapeutic agents, such as radioisotopes, to different human carcinomas overexpressing HER-2. Received: 10 August 2000 / Accepted: 19 October 2000  相似文献
10.
 用PCR技术扩增HER 2 neu胞外配体结合区 2 (RLD2 )cDNA ,并将扩增的基因片段克隆于硫氧还蛋白 (TrxA)原核表达载体中 ,获得TrxA RLD2融合蛋白的可溶性表达 .通过插入偶联翻译序列 ,实现TrxA与RLD2蛋白在大肠杆菌中的共表达 .表达产物经免疫印记检测可被抗HER 2 neu特异性抗体识别 .经离子交换层析和钴亲和层析纯化 ,RLD2蛋白的纯度达 90 % .用质谱法分析RLD2蛋白的分子量 ,与预期值相符 .结果表明 ,利用TrxA表达体系在大肠杆菌中获得了HER 2 neuRLD2蛋白高效可溶性表达  相似文献
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