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1.
根田鼠消化道长度和重量的变化及其适应意义   总被引:35,自引:10,他引:25  
动物消化道的形态与食性、食物质量以及动物量的需求密切相关。本文对青海高原地区的根田鼠在自然环境中消化道各器官的长度及重量进行了测定,结果显示总消化道及各器官(胃、小肠、大肠和盲肠)的长度,含内容物重(鲜重和干重)在各物侯期间具显著的变化,各项指标均于环境条件较好的植物生长盛期最低,于条件较差(食物纤维素含量高及低温)的植物枯黄期或返青期较高。各器官所反应程度不同,其中小肠的反应最为强烈,表明消化道  相似文献
2.
鲤、青鱼肠粘膜内分泌细胞的免疫组织化学鉴别和定位   总被引:26,自引:6,他引:20  
使用过氧化物酶——抗过氧化物酶(PAP)的免疫组织化学染色技术,用10种哺乳动物激素培育出的抗血清对鲤、青鱼肠道粘膜中内分泌细胞的鉴別表明,它们的肠道粘膜上皮中存在有胃泌素、P物质、牛胰多肽、亮氨酸脑啡肽、胰高血糖素样免疫反应物、抑胃多肽等6种免疫活性內分泌细胞;而五羟色胺、胆囊收缩素和神经降压素没有免疫活性反应。在鲤的肠粘膜中存在生长抑素免疫活性内分泌细胞;青鱼中则未见到这种细胞。两种鱼的各种免疫活性內分泌细胞多数在前肠的分布密度较大;但青鱼肠粘膜中P物质和亮氨酸脑啡肽两种免疫活性内分泌细胞却在直肠中分布最多;胰高血糖素样免疫活性内分泌细胞在中肠分布最多。P物质和胃泌素免疫活性內分泌细胞大多数分布于肠褶顶部;其他各种免疫活性內分泌细胞则主要分布于肠褶的中、底部。本文比较了鲤、青鱼的肠内分泌细胞在各肠段中的分布密度,并对其形态学及分布特点进行描述和讨论。  相似文献
3.
高寒地区高原鼢鼠消化道形态的季节变化   总被引:25,自引:7,他引:18  
王德华  王祖望 《兽类学报》2000,20(4):270-276
对青海高原地区的高原鼢鼠在自然环境中消化道各器官的长度及重量的季节变化进行了测定,结果显示总消化道保持相对的稳定性,长度、鲜重及于重均相对稳定,而含内容物器官重季节性变化明显。胃的变化相对较稳定,但长度季节性变化显,草枯黄期值最高,草生长盛期最低;小肠的鲜重在草返青期明显低于草生长盛期和草枯黄期;盲肠的变化最大,其长度和含内容物器官重草返青期明显高于其它季节。大肠的干重于枯黄期显增加。各器官的  相似文献
4.
三种鲤科鱼类肠道内分泌细胞的初探   总被引:24,自引:1,他引:23  
潘黔生  方之平 《水生生物学报》1989,13(4):348-352,T001,T002
使用Grimelius嗜银染色法对草鱼,鲤,翘嘴红鳇3种不同食性的鲤科鱼的肠道内分泌细胞进行了研究,在3种鱼的整个肠道上均发现有内分泌细胞的分布。在前肠前段中,内分泌细胞分布最多,愈向后分布愈少,在肠褶各处均有内分泌细胞分布,以基部分布最密,内分泌细胞几乎都为开放型,位于上皮细胞和杯状细胞之间,将胞突伸向肠腔,有极少数内分泌细胞兼有开放型和封闭型细胞的特点,在它们顶端胞突伸向腔的同时,基部也伸出突起将分泌物送入邻近细胞或细胞间隙中,肠上皮中还发现一种与内分泌细胞具有同样嗜银特性的圆形颗粒。  相似文献
5.
Molecular identification of prey in predator diets   总被引:23,自引:0,他引:23  
In many situations prey choice by predators in the field cannot be established or quantified using direct observation. The remains of some prey may be visually identified in the guts and faeces of predators but not all predators ingest such hard remains and even those that do consume them may also ingest soft-bodies prey that leave no recognizable remnants. The result is, at best, a biased picture of prey choice. A range of molecular techniques and applications are reviewed that allow prey remains to be identified, often to the species and even stage level. These techniques, all of which are still in use, include enzyme electrophoresis, a range of immunological approaches using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to detect protein epitopes, and recently developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for detecting prey DNA. Analyses may be postmortem, on invertebrate and vertebrate predators collected from the field, or noninvasive assays of the remains in regurgitated bird pellets or vertebrate faeces. It was concluded that although monoclonal antibodies are currently the most effective method in use today, PCR-based techniques have proved to be highly effective and versatile in recent laboratory trials and are likely to rapidly displace all other approaches.  相似文献
6.
The food webs of rocky infra-littoral ecosystems in the Mediterranean have been little studied. In this investigation stable isotopes and dietary data were compared in an attempt to describe features of the food webs concerned. δ13C and δ15N were determined for plants, invertebrates and fishes from the Bay of Calvi, Corsica. Dietary data were derived from the literature. δ13C of plants ranged from –8.59‰ to –33.74‰, of benthic invertebrates from –17.0‰ to –20.52‰, of planktonic invertebrates from –20.08‰ to –22.34‰ and of fishes from –16.27‰ to –19.59‰. δ15N was generally greater at higher trophic levels. δ15N of plants was 0.95–2.92‰, of benthic invertebrates 1.69–6.54‰, of planktonic invertebrates 3.51–6.82‰ and of fishes 4.63–9.77‰. 13C enrichment tended to be associated with benthic food chains and 13C depletion with planktonic chains. Stable-isotope data suggested more varied diets for many species than implied by gut-contents data. Omnivory and trophic plasticity were widespread, and many consumers fed lower down the food chain than previous studies had suggested. Both stable-isotope and gut-contents analysis resolved differences between fishes feeding on planktonic and benthic prey and indicated that the herbivorous fish Sarpa salpa fed on a diet substantially different from that of other fishes. Zooplankton were important in the diets of several consumers (both primary and secondary), as was plankton derived detritus. One species of fish previously identified as planktivorous was shown to feed largely on benthic organisms, whilst several species of benthic invertebrates may feed on plankton-derived detritus. Although herbivores seemed to obtain most of their C from macroalgae, δ15N data suggested that many of these animals supplemented their intake of N, although gut-contents analysis did not provide evidence for such uptake. The isotopic data have elucidated several features of the food web which we would not otherwise have detected. Received: 26 April 1999 / Accepted: 24 September 1999  相似文献
7.
8.
高寒地区高原鼠兔消化道形态的季节动态   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15  
王德华  王祖望 《动物学报》2001,47(5):495-501
对青藏高原高寒地区的高原鼠兔在自然环境中消化道各器官的长度及重量的季节变化进行了测定。结果表明,总消化道长度和含内容物组织重保持相对的稳定性,而组织鲜重和干重则季节性变化明显,均于条件较恶劣的草枯黄期达最大值;除含内容物组织重于草生长盛期较高外,胃的变化相对比较稳定。小肠的变化最为剧烈,各项指标均显示明显的季节变化,表明该器官对环境因素的改变反应强烈,各指标一般于草枯黄期和草生长盛期较高;盲肠的干重于草枯草显著增加,其它指标基本维持稳定;大肠的长度于草枯黄期显著增加,草生长盛期较高;盲肠的干重于草枯黄期显著增加,其它指标基本维持稳定;大肠的长度于草枯黄期显著增加,而其它指标则并无明显的季节变化。表明在自然环境中,面对寒冷和食物质量降低等因素的胁迫,消化道各器官在不同时期产生不同的反应,且反应的程度也不同。消化道形态的调节在高原鼠兔的消化对策中占有一定的地位。  相似文献
9.
Inactivation of Cdx2 by homologous recombination results in the development of forestomach epithelium at ectopic sites in pericaecal areas of the midgut of heterozygote mice. Local factors subsequently result in the secondary induction of tissues exhibiting an orderly sequence of tissue types between the ectopic forestomach tissue and the surrounding colon. Clonal analysis of this secondarily generated tissue using Y chromosome painting in chimaeric mice indicates that once differentiated to express Cdx2, host colonic epithelium can only form small intestinal-type epithelium, while Cdx2 mutant cells give rise to a succession of gastric-type tissue but never to a small intestine morphology. Our results indicate a difference in potency between forestomach and midgut precursor endodermal cells.  相似文献
10.
Endotoxin translocation in two models of experimental acute pancreatitis   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
To test the hypothesis that endotoxin is absorbed from the gut into the circulation in rats with experimental acute pancreatitis we studied two different animal models. In the first model necrotizing pancreatitis was induced by the ligation of the disatl bilio-pancreatic duct while in the second, experimental oedematous acute pancreatitis was induced by subcutaneous injections of caerulein. In both experiments, in the colon of rats with acute pancreatitis endotoxin from Salmonella abortus equi was injected. Endotoxin was detected by immunohistochemistry in peripheral organs with specific antibodies. The endotoxin was found only in rats with both acute pancreatitis and endotoxin injected into the colon and not in the control groups. The distribution of endotoxin in liver at 3 and 5 days was predominantly at hepatocytes level around terminal hepatic venules, while in lung a scattered diffuse pattern at the level of alveolar macrophages was identified. A positive staining was observed after 12 hours in the liver, lung, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes of rats with both caerulein pancreatitis and endotoxin injected into the colon. We conclude that the experimental acute pancreatitis leads to early endotoxin translocation from the gut lumen in the intestinal wall and consequent access of gut-derived endotoxin to the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and lung.  相似文献
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