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Synopsis Intraovarian development of embryos was observed in 31 female rockfish kurosoi,Sebastes schlegeli, which had been raised in the laboratory. Three of the females had newly fertilized eggs; the others' embryos were at various stages. The developmental series (33 stages) was not very different from that in oviparous fishes. However, several characteristic features were noted: thin egg envelope, narrow perivitelline space, elliptical encapsulated embryo in the late stages and depletion of yolk at parturition. The time course of development up to birth at different temperatures was adjusted to that at 9.8°C using the Arrhenius equation and processed for the relationship between the stage number (X) and stage-to-birth time in days (Y). An equation, was obtained, and the gestation period was calculated to be 48 days at 9.8°C.  相似文献
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Synopsis The silky shark, Carcharhinus falciformis, and scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini, represent >80% of the shark by-catch of the winter swordfish/tuna longline fishery of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. This catch represents a potential supplemental fishery, yet little is known of the life histories of the two species. This report relates reproductive biology data to age and growth estimates for 135 C. falciformis and 78 S. lewini. Unlike other regional populations, C. falciformis in the Gulf of Mexico may have a seasonal 12 month gestation period. Males mature at 210–220 cm TL (6–7 yr); females at >225 cm TL (7–9 yr). Application of age at length data for combined sexes produced von Bertalanffy growth model parameter estimates of L = 291 cm TL, K = 0.153, t0 = −2.2 yr. Adult male S. lewini outnumbered adult females in catches because of differences in the distributions of the sexually segregated population. Males mature at 180 cm TL (10 yr); females at 250 cm TL (15 yr). von Bertalanffy parameter estimates for combined sexes of this species were L = 329 cm TL, K = 0.073, to = −2.2 yr.  相似文献
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Synopsis The pike killifish, Belonesox belizanus, is native to Mexico and Central America and was introduced into Dade County, Florida in 1957. This study reports on the structure and reproduction of the Florida population and compares the species with other members of the family Poeciliidae. The mean standard length (SL) of mature females was about 103 mm. Most females larger than 75 mm SL contained yolked ova, fertilized eggs, or embryos. Mature males averaged about 72 mm SL, and most males larger than 55 mm SL were mature. The sex ratio was significantly skewed in favor of females among adults, but it did not differ significantly from 1:1 among immature fish. Average brood size was about 99, and there was a significant positive correlation of brood size with size of the parent female. There was no evidence of superfetation. Sizes and weights of embryos and neonates were the largest reported for the family. There was a significant decrease in mean embryo weight as development proceeded, indicating that developing embryos received little or no nutrient input from the maternal system after fertilization. The average interbrood interval of aquarium-held females was 42 days, and females stored viable sperm at least 47 days. Reproduction continued year round in the field. Laboratory-born neonates were immediately piscivorous and exhibited distinctive behavior associated with filling the swimbladder and with avoiding detection by predators.  相似文献
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We report for the first time the reproductive behaviors of Hainan gibbons (Nomascus hainanus), based on 29 mo of field observations. Receptive females initiated courtship displays. Copulatory patterns involved the male mounting dorsoventrally from above and behind. Multiple intromissions with thrusting were brief, lasting <10 s per copulation. We observed multiple copulations ≤4 times/d, but could not confirm multiple ejaculations. We also observed postconception proceptivity and copulations in sexually active females. We estimated the gestation period to be 136–173 d. Infants became independent at 1.5 yr, and the natal group could drive out maturing offspring at ca. 5.5 yr. The interbirth interval is ca. 24 mo. Our limited data also suggest that mating activities peak in the rainy season. The Hainan gibbons are polygynous, with a 1 male-2 females mating system. We hypothesize that suboptimal habitat quality and limited forest area may contribute to the current mating structure, but more work needs to be done over a longer period to understand better the sociosexual behaviors of this critically endangered species.  相似文献
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Chin SC  Lien CY  Chan YT  Chen CL  Yang YC  Yeh LS 《Zoo biology》2012,31(4):479-489
Eight species of pangolin have been identified in the world. However, understanding of pangolin reproductive biology has been limited to fragmentary records. In this study, the concentration of serum progesterone in three pregnant and two nonpregnant rescued female Formosan pangolins (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla) was monitored using a commercial progesterone radioimmunoassay kit. During gestation, the serum progesterone of pregnant pangolins A, B, and C remained at 28.5–55 ng/ml (n = 31 samples), 10.9–50.1 ng/ml (n = 34), and 12.4 and 33.5 ng/ml with a peak at 47.6 ng/ml (n = 19), respectively, whereas the serum progesterone of nonpregnant pangolins D and E remained at 1.99 ± 1.62 ng/ml (n = 80) and 2.27 ± 1.64 ng/ml (n = 27), respectively. From this study, it was found that female pangolin weighing as low as 2.14 kg was already capable of reproduction. For pregnant pangolins to give birth to viable offspring, their body weight must increase significantly, 63.89 and 134.0% in the study, from the time of inception or early pregnancy until parturition. In addition, study has found that both viable offspring were born fully developed and exceeded 80 g in weight. The period of gestation was found to be as short as 318 or longer than 372 days. Therefore, the Formosan pangolin should only be able to reproduce once a year. This study is the first insight into hormone assay for determining the gestation period of pangolin. Further investigations on the same subject are necessary to establish criteria for the recognition of reproductive status in pangolins. Zoo Biol 31:479–489, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献
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为探究发情期及妊娠期雌性蓝狐(Alopex lagopus)生殖激素的变化规律,选取11只繁殖期雌性蓝狐,采用放射免疫法(RIA)测定血清中雌二醇(E2)、促黄体生成素(LH)、促卵泡素(FSH)、孕酮(P)以及催乳素(PRL)的含量。结果表明,促卵泡素和促黄体生成素在发情期及妊娠期血清中浓度一直处于较稳定水平,并呈波动式分泌,最大值分别为(2.18±0.69)U/L和(8.82±1.83)U/L,同种激素不同检测日期数据两两比较差异不显著(P 0.05);雌二醇在发情期和妊娠期血清中浓度亦处于较稳定水平,最大值出现在发情第1天,为(27.73±23.19)ng/L,数据两两比较差异亦不显著(P 0.05);孕酮在发情期维持较高水平,最大值在发情第3天,为(2.41±1.35)μg/L,之后在妊娠期持续下降,分娩当天达到最低点,为(0.13±0.14)μg/L,数据两两比较差异显著(P 0.05);催乳素在发情期先下降,最低值为(0.15±0.04)U/L,第3天开始升高,并在妊娠期保持较高水平,到分娩时维持最高(0.21±0.05)U/L,数据两两比较差异不显著(P 0.05)。初步探索了5种激素含量在发情和妊娠期间的动态变化,为养殖蓝狐的生殖生理提供参考数据。  相似文献
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The aim of the present study was to examine the biochemical influence of feeding high dietary fibre (DF) diets formulated from by-products from the vegetable and agricultural industries to sows during early to mid-gestation. The effect of feeding frequency (once vs. twice daily) on diurnal plasma metabolites patterns was also examined. The study included a total of 48 gestating sows from four blocks (12 gestating sows in each block). The sows were fed four different diets containing varying levels of starch (304–519 g/kg dry matter (DM)) and DF (171–404 g/kg DM) but with equal amounts of net energy. The low-DF diet (control) was based on barley and wheat, and the three high-DF diets formulated by replacing barley and wheat by pectin residue, sugar beet pulp and potato pulp, respectively. The experimental design comprised two periods of 4 weeks each. Half the sows were fed once daily at 08:00 h in the first period and twice daily at 08:00 and 15:00 h during the second period, and vice versa for the other half of the sows. Plasma samples from vena jugularis were collected by venipuncture at 07:00, 09:00, 12:00 and 19:00 h. Feeding high-DF increased plasma short-chain fatty acids (p = 0.02) and non-esterified fatty acids (p < 0.001). However, there was no clear effect of DF on glucose and insulin responses. A negative correlation between amount of DF in the diets and plasma creatine (R 2 = 1.00; diet effect: p = 0.02) suggested that plasma creatine concentrations was an indicator for the level of glucose–glycogen interchange. Furthermore, an explorative approach using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabonomics identified betaine (p < 0.001), dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2; p < 0.001) and scyllo-inositol (p < 0.001) as biomarkers for the different by-products; pectin residue was related to high plasma levels of DMSO2, sugar beet pulp to plasma betaine, DMSO2 and scyllo-inositol, and potato pulp to plasma DMSO2 and scyllo-inositol. In conclusion, replacing starch by DF affected surprisingly few metabolites in peripheral plasma. No negative effects were found in feeding pectin residue, sugar beet pulp or potato pulp for gestating sows as judged from the minor metabolic changes.  相似文献
10.
目的 调查分析育龄妇女妊娠期需氧菌性阴道感染的发病率.方法 采用Donders高倍镜湿片镜检法联合细菌预成酶快速检测法对长兴县妇幼保健医院产前门诊常规孕检的育龄孕妇的阴道分泌物进行检查.结果 201例育龄孕妇中,共检出需氧菌性阴道感染患者36例,占总人数的17.9%.其中,孕早期、孕中期及孕晚期孕妇需氧菌增殖例数分别为5(占7.2%,5/69)、4(占7.4%,4/54)及6(占7.7%,6/78);孕早期、孕中期及孕晚期孕妇需氧菌阴道炎例数分别为7(占10.1%,7/69)、6(占11.1%,6/54)及8(占10.3%,8/78).结论 在妊娠早、中及晚期均会出现需氧菌性阴道感染,临床医生应采取合理有效的措施进行及时治疗,防止阴道上行感染的发生.  相似文献
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