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1.
影响牛胚胎干细胞分离克隆因素的研究   总被引:23,自引:0,他引:23  
采用与同源胎儿成纤维细胞共同培养及传统饲养层培养方式,以高糖DMEM,添加0.1mM2-巯基乙醇,犊牛血清,细胞因子为培养基,以4-13周龄屠宰牛胎儿为实验材料,探讨影响牛原始生殖细胞分离克隆胚胎干细胞的相关因素,结果发现:当犊牛血清为15%时效果最好;细胞因子添加与否对胚胎干细胞的分离及同源牛胎儿成纤维细胞的贴壁与生长影响并不显著,而在传代过程中中有一定影响;以0.2%胰酶 0.04?TA为细胞消化液效果最佳;以同源胎儿成纤维细胞共培养的方式分离克隆牛胚胎干细胞,本研究观察到效果最好。  相似文献
2.
革胡子鲇原始生殖细胞的起源、迁移及性腺分化   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19  
革胡子鲇又称埃及胡子鲇,是一种多次产卵类型的硬骨鱼。作者用组织学、组织化学、电子显微镜等方法对革胡子鲇的原始生殖细胞(Primordial germ cells,PGCs)的起源、特征、迁移方式和性腺分化进行了研究。实验结果:PGCs来源于内胚层;PGCs的细胞质中存在着一种与生殖细胞有关的电子致密物——生殖质(Germ plasm);PGCs在迁移过程中有主动迁移的能力;PGCs到达生殖嵴的部位后,与生殖上皮细胞(Epithelisl cells)一起共同形成原始性腺;原始性腺分别逐步向精巢和卵巢分化;生殖质与性腺的分化有密切关系;卵巢的分化比精巢早。  相似文献
3.
Spermatogenesis is a complex and productive process that originates from stem cell spermatogonia and ultimately results in formation of mature spermatozoa. The stem cell undergoes self-renewal throughout life, but study of its biological characteristics has been difficult because a very small number (2 to 3 in 10(4) cells) exist in the testis and they can only be identified by function. Although the development of the spermatogonial transplantation technique has provided an assay system for stem cells, efficient methods to enrich stem cells have not been available. Here, we examined two infertile mouse models, Steel/Steel(Dickie)(Sl/Sl(d)) and experimental cryptorchid, as a source of testis cell populations enriched in stem cells. The Sl/Sl(d) testis showed little enrichment, which raises questions about how adult stem cell number is determined and about the currently accepted belief that adult stem cells are independent of Sl factor. The cells recovered from cryptorchid testes were enriched for stem cells 25-fold (colonies) or 50-fold (area) compared to wild-type testes. The cryptorchid condition does not affect stem cell activity, but eliminates almost all differentiated cells, and about 1 in 200 cells is a stem cell. Thus, cryptorchid testes provide an important approach for purification and characterization of spermatogonial stem cells.  相似文献
4.
合浦珠母贝的配子发生   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16  
沈亦平  马丽君 《动物学报》1992,38(2):113-117
本文研究了合浦珠母贝精子和卵子的发生过程,详细描述了原始生殖细胞,精原细胞,卵原细胞,精母细胞,卵母细胞以及精子和卵子的形态结构;另外还报道了合浦珠母贝中独特的精、卵退化现象,并讨论了它们对合浦珠母贝人工育苗生产的影响。  相似文献
5.
革胡子鲇卵巢在第一次性周期内分化与发育的研究   总被引:12,自引:2,他引:10       下载免费PDF全文
用光镜和电镜研究了革胡子鲇(Clariaslazera)原生殖细胞的起源迁移,卵巢在第1次性周期内的分化与发育以及各发育时期卵母细胞的超微结构。原生殖细胞起源于内胚层,有固定的迁移路线,进入生殖嵴后,生殖嵴进一步分化,出现卵巢腔分化成卵巢,卵母细胞在第1次性周期内的发育可分成6个时相,描述了各时相卵母细胞的显微结构与超微结构。同时,叙述了卵母细胞中卵黄发生的形态形成。  相似文献
6.
Tsung HC  Du ZW  Rui R  Li XL  Bao LP  Wu J  Bao SM  Yao Z 《Cell research》2003,13(3):195-202
As a part of a basic research project on Xeno-transplantion, we have been engaged in the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines from Chinese mini swine. Here, we reported for the first time the establishment of two porcine EG cell lines (BPEG1 and BPEG2) from primordial germ cells of genital ridges of a 28 anda 27 d embryos respectively. Their pluripotent nature has been identified by colony morphology, marker characterization as well as by in vitro and in vivo differentiation. These porcine EG cells are potentially useful for further basic studies.  相似文献
7.
Abnormalities of testicular descent   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
Testicular descent occurs in two stages. The transabdominal phase (8–15 weeks) is controlled by enlargement of the caudal genito-inguinal ligament (gubernaculum) and regression of the cranial ligament. Insulin-like 3 from the Leydig cell appears to be the prime stimulator of gubernacular growth, augmented by Müllerian inhibiting substance/anti-Müllerian hormone. Testosterone causes regression of the cranial ligament. The inguinoscrotal phase (25–35 weeks) requires the migration of the gubernaculum from the groin to the scrotum; this migration is guided by the genito-femoral nerve releasing calcitonin gene-related peptide under the influence of androgen. The neonatal gonocyte transforms into a type A spermatogonium at 3–12 months of age, a step that is now known to be crucial for subsequent fertility, as the stem cells for spermatogenesis are created in this structure. This step is blocked in undescended testis and, hence, orchidopexy is currently recommended at 6–12 months of age. Congenital cryptorchidism is caused by the failure of gubernacular migration to the scrotum (1%–2%) but we now recognise that another 1%–2% of boys have acquired cryptorchidism, secondary to the failure of spermatic cord elongation with growth of the boy. These latter cases come to operation at 5–10 years of age. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, as hormonal therapy has not been proven to be effective, presumably because testicular descent is a complex anatomical mechanism.  相似文献
8.
Avian pluripotent stem cells   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
Pluripotent embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated cells capable of proliferation and self-renewal and have the capacity to differentiate into all somatic cell types and the germ line. They provide an in vitro model of early embryonic differentiation and are a useful means for targeted manipulation of the genome. Pluripotent stem cells in the chick have been derived from stage X blastoderms and 5.5 day gonadal primordial germ cells (PGCs). Blastoderm-derived embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the capacity for in vitro differentiation into embryoid bodies and derivatives of the three primary germ layers. When grafted onto the chorioallantoic membrane, the ESCs formed a variety of differentiated cell types and attempted to organize into complex structures. In addition, when injected into the unincubated stage X blastoderm, the ESCs can be found in numerous somatic tissues and the germ line. The potential give rise to somatic and germ line chimeras is highly dependent upon the culture conditions and decreases with passage. Likewise, PGC-derived embryonic germ cells (EGCs) can give rise to simple embryoid bodies and can undergo some differentiation in vitro. Interestingly, chicken EG cells contribute to somatic lineages when injected into the stage X blastoderm, but only germ line chimeras have resulted from EGCs injected into the vasculature of the stage 16 embryo. To date, no lines of transgenic chickens have been generated using ESCs or EGCs. Nevertheless, progress towards the culture of avian pluripotent stem cells has been significant. In the future, the answers to fundamental questions regarding segregation of the avian germ line and the molecular basis of pluripotency should foster the full use of avian pluripotent stem cells.  相似文献
9.
鸡胚不同发育时期原始生殖细胞的分离方法   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
采用Ficoll密度梯度离心法和EDTA-胰酶酶解法两种方法,分别提取第14期(孵化53h)血液、第19期(孵化72h)和第28期(孵化132h)生殖腺中的PGCs,以比较两种分离方法对3个发育时期的鸡胚原始生殖细胞在相同体外培养条件下存活时间的差异。结果发现,两种分离方法均能分离到一定数量的原始生殖细胞,但是酶解法分离到的原始生殖细胞的相对数量较Ficoll密度梯度离心法的多,存活时间较长,是一种适宜的分离方法;对鸡胚发育第14、19、28期3个时期提取的原始生殖细胞进行体外培养,存活时间分别为:72h、88h和80h,三者之间差异显著。结果表明:在鸡胚孵化的第19期,因原始生殖细胞大量聚集在肢体后端的生殖嵴原基处,因而较容易收集,体外培养较为适宜,具有较强的可操作性[动物学报49(6):835~842,2003]。  相似文献
10.
Timing of establishment of paternal methylation imprints in the mouse   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
Li JY  Lees-Murdock DJ  Xu GL  Walsh CP 《Genomics》2004,84(6):2094-960
Imprinted genes are characterized by predominant expression from one parental allele and differential DNA methylation. Few imprinted genes have been found to acquire a methylation mark in the male germ line, however, and only one of these, H19, has been studied in detail. We examined methylation of the Rasgrf1 and Gtl2 differentially methylated regions (DMR) to determine whether methylation is erased in male germ cells at e12.5 and when the paternal allele acquires methylation. We also compared their methylation dynamics with those of H19 and the maternally methylated gene Snrpn. Our results show that methylation is erased on Rasgrf1, H19, and Snrpn at e12.5, but that Gtl2 retains substantial methylation at this stage. Erasure of methylation marks on Gtl2 appears to occur later in female germ cells to give the unmethylated profile seen in mature MII oocytes. In the male germ line, de novo methylation of Rasgrf1, Gtl2, and H19 occurs in parallel between e12.5 and e17.5, but the DMR are not completely methylated until the mature sperm stage, suggesting a methylation dynamic different from that of IAP, L1, and minor satellite sequences, which have been shown to become fully methylated by e17.5 in male germ cells. This study also indicates important differences between different imprinted DMR in timing and extent of methylation in the germ cells.  相似文献
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