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With its theoretical basis firmly established in molecular evolutionary and population genetics, the comparative DNA and protein sequence analysis plays a central role in reconstructing the evolutionary histories of species and multigene families, estimating rates of molecular evolution, and inferring the nature and extent of selective forces shaping the evolution of genes and genomes. The scope of these investigations has now expanded greatly owing to the development of high-throughput sequencing techniques and novel statistical and computational methods. These methods require easy-to-use computer programs. One such effort has been to produce Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, with its focus on facilitating the exploration and analysis of the DNA and protein sequence variation from an evolutionary perspective. Currently in its third major release, MEGA3 contains facilities for automatic and manual sequence alignment, web-based mining of databases, inference of the phylogenetic trees, estimation of evolutionary distances and testing evolutionary hypotheses. This paper provides an overview of the statistical methods, computational tools, and visual exploration modules for data input and the results obtainable in MEGA.  相似文献
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Plant genomics projects involving model species and many agriculturally important crops are resulting in a rapidly increasing database of genomic and expressed DNA sequences. The publicly available collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from several grass species can be used in the analysis of both structural and functional relationships in these genomes. We analyzed over 260000 EST sequences from five different cereals for their potential use in developing simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The frequency of SSR-containing ESTs (SSR-ESTs) in this collection varied from 1.5% for maize to 4.7% for rice. In addition, we identified several ESTs that are related to the SSR-ESTs by BLAST analysis. The SSR-ESTs and the related sequences were clustered within each species in order to reduce the redundancy and to produce a longer consensus sequence. The consensus and singleton sequences from each species were pooled and clustered to identify cross-species matches. Overall a reduction in the redundancy by 85% was observed when the resulting consensus and singleton sequences (3569) were compared to the total number of SSR-EST and related sequences analyzed (24606). This information can be useful for the development of SSR markers that can amplify across the grass genera for comparative mapping and genetics. Functional analysis may reveal their role in plant metabolism and gene evolution.  相似文献
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遗传多样性的分子检测   总被引:71,自引:2,他引:69       下载免费PDF全文
生物多样性的保护和可持续利用是维持全球经济稳定和发展的重要因素,也是保持我们赖以生存环境的重要内容。为了实现这一目的,必须尽快建立一套对生物多样性认识和检测的有效方法,逐步认清全球生物多样性的基本状况。本文论述了生物多样性特别是物种间和物种内多样性的几种主要检测方法,着重介绍分子标记的最新进展及比较基因组学的兴起在生物多样性研究中的广泛应用。  相似文献
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微波法快速提取放线菌基因组DNA   总被引:69,自引:1,他引:68  
原有的放线菌基因组DNA提取方法费时、费力、费用高,且对极端环境放线菌成功率较低。利用微波热振惊提取固体培养基表面放线菌菌落基因组DNA,具有快速、简便、费用低廉等优点。所得的基因组DNA可作为PCR反应的模板进行16S rRNA基因有效扩增。这为大量放线菌菌株的快速鉴别和系统分类创造了条件。  相似文献
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Genome evolution in polyploids   总被引:67,自引:0,他引:67  
Polyploidy is a prominent process in plants and has been significant in the evolutionary history of vertebrates and other eukaryotes. In plants, interdisciplinary approaches combining phylogenetic and molecular genetic perspectives have enhanced our awareness of the myriad genetic interactions made possible by polyploidy. Here, processes and mechanisms of gene and genome evolution in polyploids are reviewed. Genes duplicated by polyploidy may retain their original or similar function, undergo diversification in protein function or regulation, or one copy may become silenced through mutational or epigenetic means. Duplicated genes also may interact through inter-locus recombination, gene conversion, or concerted evolution. Recent experiments have illuminated important processes in polyploids that operate above the organizational level of duplicated genes. These include inter-genomic chromosomal exchanges, saltational, non-Mendelian genomic evolution in nascent polyploids, inter-genomic invasion, and cytonuclear stabilization. Notwithstanding many recent insights, much remains to be learned about many aspects of polyploid evolution, including: the role of transposable elements in structural and regulatory gene evolution; processes and significance of epigenetic silencing; underlying controls of chromosome pairing; mechanisms and functional significance of rapid genome changes; cytonuclear accommodation; and coordination of regulatory factors contributed by two, sometimes divergent progenitor genomes. Continued application of molecular genetic approaches to questions of polyploid genome evolution holds promise for producing lasting insight into processes by which novel genotypes are generated and ultimately into how polyploidy facilitates evolution and adaptation.  相似文献
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DNA芯片技术研究进展   总被引:64,自引:5,他引:59       下载免费PDF全文
 DNA芯片技术是近年来发展迅速的生物高技术 .其基本过程是采用寡核苷酸原位合成或显微打印手段 ,将大量探针片段有序地固化于支持物如硅芯片的表面 ,然后与扩增、标记的生物样品杂交 ,通过对杂交信号的检测分析 ,即可得出样品的遗传信息 .该技术不仅可以对遗传信息进行定性、定量分析 ,而且扩展到基因组研究和基因诊断等方面的应用 .尽管目前在硬件和软件上还面临一些困难 ,但其发展和应用的前景广阔 .  相似文献
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一种动物基因组DNA提取方法的改进   总被引:64,自引:2,他引:62       下载免费PDF全文
介绍一种动物基因组DNA提取方法。该方法具有简便、快速、实用的特点,所获得的DNA数量和质量都很高,可用于各种分子生物学实验。  相似文献
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Metabolomics – the link between genotypes and phenotypes   总被引:60,自引:0,他引:60  
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