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A list of microlepidoptera belonging to the superfamily Gelechioidea was produced from June trap samples from sites within the Wayne National Forest (Lawrence County), an Appalachian forest in Southern Ohio that was once a greatly disturbed area and has since re-established over a period of nearly 100 years. The composition and diversity of Lawrence county is compared to lists of gelechioid moths generated by other surveys in the eastern United States: the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, an Ohio study (Summerville and Crist 2003), and unpublished data from Connecticut (Wagner). From comparison with these studies, we address two questions: (1) How well do passive surveys of Gelechioidea compare to more labor intensive surveys? (2) How does the regenerated Wayne National Forest compare to other well documented areas with respect to gelechioid diversity? Our sample of diversity, though more narrow in time and area, compares favorably to more exhaustive sampling and demonstrates that it may be more efficient to focus on target groups in focal localities when time and resources are limited rather than conduct extensive sampling programs.  相似文献
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Aim Although the ability to fly confers benefits to most insects, some taxa have become secondarily flightless. Insect flightlessness may be more likely to evolve in environments such as islands and other windswept and alpine areas, but this prediction has rarely been tested while controlling for phylogenetic effects. Here we present a phylogeny for the endemic Hawaiian Lepidoptera genus Thyrocopa, which has two flightless species that occur in alpine areas on Maui and Hawaii islands, in order to determine whether the flightless species are sister to each other or represent separate losses of flight. We also explore divergence times and biogeographic patterns of inter‐island colonization in Thyrocopa, and present the first Hawaiian study to sample a genus from nine islands. Location The Hawaiian Islands. Methods The phylogeny is composed of 70 individuals (including 23 Thyrocopa species and 7 outgroup species) sequenced for portions of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, elongation factor 1α and wingless genes, for a total of 1964 base pairs, and was estimated using both parsimony (paup *) and Bayesian inference (Mr Bayes ). Divergence times were estimated using the beast software package. Results Our results indicate that two independent invasions of alpine habitats with concomitant loss of flight have occurred in Thyrocopa. Based on current taxon sampling, Thyrocopa colonized the Hawaiian Islands slightly before the formation of Kauai. In terms of overall patterns of diversification, subclades generally follow a progression from older to younger islands. The genus has the greatest number of species on Kauai, with species numbers generally decreasing with decreasing island age. Main conclusions Loss of flight ability has evolved twice in a short period of geological time in Thyrocopa, perhaps as a result of low temperatures, high winds and/or a lack of predation pressure. However, several other Thyrocopa species that live on small islands with consistently high winds, such as Necker and Nihoa islands, retain the ability to fly.  相似文献
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