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1.
The larvae of Anthene emolus (Lycaenidae) cannot survive in the wild without their associated ant Oecophylla smaragdina (Formicidae) . The ants groom the lycaenid larvae for secretions and, in turn, protect them from parasitoids and predators. Both major and minor worker ants tend larvae, although, in the present study, the frequencies of tending by different castes proved to be significantly different. Ants also tended late instars significantly more than young larvae. O. smaragdina ants of the same colony were observed fighting when A. emolus larvae were present. Aggression was exhibited by the major workers against the minor workers that tried to tend secreting larvae. Major ants precluded the minors from the most nutritious secretions, leaving minors to tend the less productive, early instars. On a few occasions, aggression was unchecked and major workers killed the larvae they were tending (presumably accidentally). When larvae were experimentally reared with only one caste of ant, the resulting butterflies showed no differences in dry weight. Mortality was high when larvae were reared with only minor ants or in the absence of ants.  © 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2006, 88 , 391–395.  相似文献
2.
Slave-making ants raid nests of other ant species, capture the developing offspring and rear them to slave workers. Here we compare slave-making of three formicine slave-making ants: the facultative Formica subnuda, the obligate Polyergus breviceps, and F. subintegra which previously has been considered facultative but appears to be an obligate slave-making ant. If F. subintegra is an obligate slavemaker, slave-making of F. subintegra should differ from that of F. subnuda but closely resemble slave-making of P. breviceps in the following aspects: (1) Obligate slavemakers are rarer than facultative slavemakers. (2) Slaveless colonies of facultative slavemakers are found, but obligate slavemakers always have slaves. (3) Because obligate slavemakers depend on their slaves, they should have a higher proportion of slaves than facultative slavemakers. (4) Owing to special adaptations obligate slavemakers are able to raid bigger colonies, and hence have bigger slaves than facultative slavemakers. (5) Dufour's gland of F. subintegra should be larger than that of F. subnuda. Per 100 free F. podzolica colonies, the number of P. breviceps and F. subintegra colonies with F. podzolica slaves were 1.3% and 3.9%, respectively, and the number of F. subnuda colonies with F. podzolica 3.7%, and without F. podzolica 7.5%. The proportion of slaves, when present, varied between 1–30% in the colonies of F. subnuda, and between 70–90% in the colonies of the other species. The slaves of F. subnuda were significantly smaller than those of F. subintegra and P. breviceps. The length of F. subnuda's Dufour's gland was one third of the length of F. subintegra's gland. The results show that slave-making of F. subintegra parallels that of P. breviceps, and contrary to the earlier notion, F. subintegra is an obligate slave-making ant. We suggest that F. subnuda and F. subintegra represent extreme modes of slave-making behaviour in the Formica sanguinea group.  相似文献
3.
Matriline and the predominant social tasks performed by workers are correlated in the functionally polygynous ponerine ant Gnamptogenys striatula. This result favors the idea that polygyny might have been secondarily selected and maintained in ants because it provided more genetic variability and, thus, more potential variation in the regulation of the division of labor within mutualistic societies. As in previous studies on ants, nepotism could not be demonstrated. Because of the relatively small number of individuals per colony, these ponerine ants constitute a valuable model for exploring how polyethism is determined in insect societies.  相似文献
4.
Gnamptogenys menadensis (subfamily Ponerinae) foragers use chemical trails to home to their nests. Although prey capture and retrieval are generally performed solitarily, trails seem to enhance foraging to areas rich in prey or to sugar sources. Trail laying and following are most conspicuous during nest migration. These trails are laid down by tapping the sting onto the substrate. In laboratory tests, only extracts from the Dufour's gland were readily followed. Workers of Polyrhachis rufipes (Formicinae) use the trails of G. menadensis to gain access to otherwise nonavailable sugar sources. When they encounter Gnamptogenys foragers, P. rufipes workers show a typical aggressive antennal boxing, to which Gnamptogenys reacts with a submissive behavior. This is the first report of commensalism between a ponerine and a formicine ant.  相似文献
5.
In this study we report a case of ant-trail following by lycaenid caterpillars. Euliphyra mirifica and E. leucyana caterpillars are involved in a commensal association with the weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda. The host nests are made with leaves which over the course of time dry out or are broken open by storms, forcing the ants to migrate and build a new nest elsewhere. Euliphyra caterpillars are stimulated by recruitment behaviour which triggers the migration of their host. They then follow the host trails leading to the new nesting site. Laboratory experiments showed that these caterpillars are able to follow host trails under varied conditions: (1) fresh trails actually used by workers, (2) fresh trails in the absence of workers, (3) heterocolonial, 2-month-old trails, and (4) fresh trails washed with water (to simulate the effect of tropical rains). They can also bridge trail gaps of more than 1 cm. Under natural conditions, the trails are frequently situated along thin twigs. The forward progress of the ants in such a situation is not impeded by the presence of large Euliphyra larvae. Workers just climb over the caterpillars, even on larger trails where there is enough room to pass alongside them. This suggests that an allomone is secreted on the dorsal part of the caterpillars. When crawling along heterocolonial trails, the caterpillars are not attacked, even if about 21% of the workers from the new colony spread their mandibles when encountering them. They are then adopted and are admitted to the nest of the new host colony of O. longinoda.  相似文献
6.
Summary Polyrhachis laboriosa andCamponotus brutus are two syntopic ants of the African equatorial forest. Although they occupy two different ecological niches (nesting area, diet, rhythms of activity), they are in competition for the exploitation of large permanent food sources. C. brutus, which is nocturnal, changed its rhythm of activity in the presence of large permanent food sources to exploit it day and night, whileP. laboriosa, diurnal, did not change its rhythm of activity. Encounters between workers of the two species at the food source always resulted in duels, even though several other workers were present. When attacked byC. brutus, P. laboriosa workers showed a novel flee-return strategy (fleeing over a 20-cm distance and returning to the source) instead of escaping definitively from the source and displayed ritualized behavior (i.e., fleeing, raising the gaster, flexing the gaster). These types of behavior appeasedC. brutus workers and enabledP. laboriosa to avoid overt aggression and to exploit the source in spite of the presence of a competitor. C. brutus also exhibited ritualized behavior during the duels (i.e., back-and-forth jerking of the body, series of light bites on a leg).C. brutus intimidatedP. laboriosa rather than really attacking it. This ritualization, used at an interspecific level, may be the result of a coevolutionary process or the effect of learning that certain types of behavior are beneficial. In any case, both species benefit from the possibility of exploiting large permanent food sources through confrontations that never lead to overt aggression.  相似文献
7.
This study reports new information on interactions between two sympatric ant species, the plant-ant Azteca alfari (Dolichoderinae) living in association with the myrmecophyte Cecropia obtusa (Cecropiaceae) and Camponotus blandus (Formicinae), a ground-nesting, arboreal-foraging species. Workers of A. alfari forage only on the foliage and the upper parts of the trunk of their host Cecropia, while C. blandus nests in the ground but frequently forages and patrols pioneer tree foliage, including Cecropia. The activity pattern of A. alfari and the number of C. blandus on Cecropia obtusa was monitored hourly during a two-day period in a disturbed area in French Guiana. The maximum activity of C. blandus occurred between 8:30 and 12:30, at which time A. alfari had retreated within the domatia and were least present on the trunks. Even though aggressive confrontations were observed, C. blandus workers often initiate confrontations but do not prey on A. alfari nor exploit food bodies produced by Cecropia, the principal food source of A. alfari. Hence hostility appears to be the result of territoriality. Differences in their foraging rhythms are proposed as promoting resource and territory partitioning in this ant assemblage. To cite this article: M. McClure et al., C. R. Biologies 331 (2008).  相似文献
8.
Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre‐ and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony‐level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping‐by‐sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single‐queen and multiple‐queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects.  相似文献
9.
Insect societies vary greatly in social organization, yet the relative roles of ecological and genetic factors in driving this variation remain poorly understood. Identifying how social structure varies along environmental gradients can provide insights into the ecological conditions favouring alternative social organizations. Here, we investigate how queen number variation is distributed along elevation gradients within a socially polymorphic ant, the Alpine silver ant Formica selysi. We sampled low‐ and high‐elevation populations in multiple Alpine valleys. We show that populations belonging to different drainage basins are genetically differentiated. In contrast, there is little genetic divergence between low‐ and high‐elevation populations within the same drainage basin. Thus, elevation gradients in each of the drainage basins represent independent contrasts. Whatever the elevation, all well‐sampled populations are socially polymorphic, containing both monogynous (= one queen) and polygynous (= multiple queen) colonies. However, the proportion of monogynous colonies per population increases at higher elevation, while the effective number of queens in polygynous colonies decreases, and this pattern is replicated in each drainage basin. The increased prevalence of colonies with a single queen at high elevation is correlated with summer and winter average temperature, but not with precipitation. The colder, unpredictable and patchy environment encountered at higher elevations may favour larger queens with the ability to disperse and establish incipient monogynous colonies independently, while the stable and continuous habitat in the lowlands may favour large, fast‐growing polygynous colonies. By highlighting differences in the environmental conditions favouring monogynous or polygynous colonies, this study sheds light on the ecological factors influencing the distribution and maintenance of social polymorphism.  相似文献
10.
Herbivorous insects have evolved various defensive strategies to avoid their primary enemies, parasitoids. Many species of Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera) have food‐for‐protection mutualism with ants in their larval stages, where larvae produce nectar for ants and in return ants exclude parasitoids as well as predators. Myrmecophilous relationships are divided into two categories, obligate and facultative, by degrees of myrmecophily. Although parasitoids attacking obligate lycaenids always encounter lycaenid‐specific ant species, parasitoids that use facultative lycaenids are likely to encounter diverse ant species showing various defense systems. However, we know little about the parasitoid community of facultative lycaenid larvae. In this study, we investigated the mutualistic ant and parasitoid communities of a facultative myrmecophilous species, Arhopala japonica, in seven localities in Japan. The present field observation newly recorded four ant species attending A. japonica larvae, and combined with the previous data, the number of attending ant species reached 16, which is nearly the maximum number of reported attending ant species among myrmecophilous lycaenids. However, the present study revealed that almost all parasitized A. japonica larvae were attacked by a single braconid species, Cotesia sp. near inducta. We also assessed the efficiency of facultative ant defense against the parasitoid in the laboratory and revealed that oviposition by Cotesia sp. near inducta females was almost completely hindered when A. japonica larvae were attended by ants. This suggests that the dominant parasitoid does not have effective traits to overcome defensive behavior of ants and that the female wasps oviposit mainly in A. japonica larvae without intensive attendance.  相似文献
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