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1.
Breeding activities and molt are generally thought to be mutuallyexclusive in birds since both are energetically costly and arenormally separated in time. However, sometimes molt overlapswith breeding to some degree. A trade-off between adult somaticmaintenance functions (feather renewal) and parental care isthen to be expected. The consequences of this are largely unknown,and there are few studies that have shown any fitness costsof molt-breeding overlap. We investigated the consequences ofmolt-breeding overlap by removing first clutches of blue titParus casruleus pairs, thereby inducing late repeat clutches.Among the delayed pairs, a high proportion of males and somefemales started their molt already during incubation or nestlingfeeding. Molting males fed their nestlings to a lesser extentthan non-molting ones, and nestling mortality increased as adirect result of the early timing of male molt. Furthermore,the ability to raise an experimentally enlarged brood was negativelycoupled to the molt stage of the male. Our data thus provideevidence that molt-breeding overlap leads to fitness costs,and we discuss the results within the context of sexual conflictand the implications for optimization of avian reproductivedecisions  相似文献
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The effect of feeding level ( F L; 0·5 to 4% dry diet mass per wet fish body mass) and feeding frequency (once every 4 days to twice per day) on postprandial metabolic response was investigated in southern catfish Silurus meridionalis at 27·5° C. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the specific dynamic action (SDA) coefficient among the groups of different feeding levels ( P  > 0·05). The duration increased from 26·0 to 40·0 h and the peak metabolic rate increased from 207·8 to 378·8 mg O2 kg−1 h−1 when the feeding level was increased from 0·5 to 4%. The relationship between the peak metabolic rate ( R P, mg O2 kg−1 h−1) and F L could be described as: R P = 175·4 + 47·3 F L( r 2 = 0·943, n  = 40, P  < 0·001). The relationship between the SDA duration ( D , h) and F L could be described as D =30·97 F L0·248 ( r 2=0·729, n =40, P  < 0·001).  相似文献
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We measured oxygen consumption in juvenile Chinese striped-necked turtles (Ocadia sinensis) after they ingested food, either as a single meal or as double meals, to examine the influence of meal type and feeding frequency on specific dynamic action (SDA). Temporal variation in oxygen consumption after feeding was evident in the ingesting turtles but not in the unfed control turtles. In the single-meal experiment, the peak metabolic rate and the integrated SDA response (the whole energetic cost for the processes of digestion) both did not differ between turtles ingesting mealworms and shrimps when the influence of variation in ingested energy was removed, and the time to reach peak metabolic rate was not affected by meal type and the amount of food ingested. Turtles in the double-meal experiment ingested more energy and hence had a prolonged duration of SDA response than did those in the single-meal experiment, but the integrated SDA response did not differ between both experimental treatments when the influence of variation in ingested energy was removed. Our results show that meal type and feeding frequency have important consequences on the SDA response of juvenile O. sinensis. As the integrated SDA response remained remarkably constant either between turtles ingesting different food or between turtles ingesting the same food but at different frequencies when the influence of variation in ingested energy was removed, we therefore conclude that the energetic cost associated with ingestion is primarily determined by energy content of food ingested in juvenile O. sinensis.  相似文献
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Experiments were performed to determine suitable conditions for low temperature preservation of small S (Fukuoka) and ultra-small SS (Thai) strains of B. rotundiformis. For this, single rotifers (an adult bearing one egg or a 4-h neonate) were incubated for 10 days in 1 ml seawater (22 ppt salinity). The highest survival was achieved at 10 and 12 °C for S-strain and 12 °C for SS-strain. The effect of salinity, change of culture medium and feeding regime were further tested on rotifers (300 ind. ml–1) cultured in vials containing 10 ml seawater and microalgae at 12 °C. Survival of S-strain was highest (55.5±0.8%) at 35 ppt, while SS-strain survived best (43.1±2.6%) at 17 ppt. Survival was suppressed by changing the culture medium every 4 days. Feeding rotifers every 2 days yielded better survival (66.2±6.6%: S-strains, cultured at 35 ppt and 81.8±5.2%, SS-strains cultured at 17 ppt) than feeding them only at the beginning of the experiment or at 4-day intervals. An acclimation at 20 °C for 24 h before transferring them from their usual culture temperature (28 °C) to 12 °C resulted in higher survival of SS-strain. For S-strain, however, no significant improvement resulted from acclimation. SS-strain was more susceptible to lower temperature and higher salinity than S-strain.  相似文献
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We investigated chick development and feeding rate in the neotropic cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, in a colony in Central Chile. The year of our study was characterized by relatively good foraging conditions. Brood sizes varied from two to five chicks, and hatching was asynchronous, with gaps of 0 to 6 days between the youngest and the oldest chick. Egg size declined over laying order in three-egg clutches, but not in four-egg clutches. Hatch weight did not vary with hatching position, irrespective of brood size. Chicks increased mass on average by 60 g/day between 8 and 20 days of age. Growth rates and survival to fledging depended on hatching position only in broods of four, where D-chicks grew slower and showed a higher pre-fledging mortality. There was a non-significant tendency that also A-, B-, and C-chicks in broods of four grew slower than in smaller broods. Average number of fledglings was 2.76. Feeding frequency decreased with chick age between the ages of 10–40 days. Four-chick broods received more feeds per day than smaller broods, leading to a similar per-chick feeding frequency across all brood sizes. D-chicks were clearly disadvantaged in growth and survival, and facultative brood reduction occurred.  相似文献
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Anthropophilic mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) have been shown to have superior reproductive success on human blood when sugar is not available. Life-table experiments were conducted with Aedes albopictus Skuse and Ae. aegypti to compare the effects of sugar availability on age-specific survivorship, lifetime and daily fecundity, and blood-feeding frequency when offered human blood daily. There were no significant interactions between the effects of sugar availability and mosquito species for these four variables, indicating similar effects of sugar availability for both species. Lifetime fecundity was not significantly affected by sugar availability, but sugar-deprived females had significantly reduced age-specific survivorship than did sugar-fed females. In absence of sugar, females took bloodmeals twice as often, resulting in a higher daily fecundity. The results indicate that superior reproductive success on human blood without sugar does not seem to be limited to highly anthropophilic mosquito species, such as Ae. aegypti. We conclude that evolution of a highly anthropophilic feeding strategy is not an inevitable result of the ability to thrive on human blood alone.  相似文献
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We hypothesized that increased feeding frequency in captive harbor seals would increase nutrient loads and thus reduce retention time and the digestive efficiency of natural prey. We measured daily feed intake and excretion during 6 feeding trials and fed herring (49% lipid), pollock (22% lipid) or an equal mix of each diet over 24 months. Animals were accustomed to feeding at either high or low frequency. Body mass and intake did not vary with season. Although mean retention times were similar between diets and feeding frequencies, solute and particulate digesta markers separated at high feeding frequency. Consistent dry matter digestibility resulted in greater gut fill from pollock than from herring. Digestible energy intakes from pollock were approximately 25% greater than from either herring or the mixed diet. Lipid digestibility of herring declined from 90% to 50% when lipid intake exceeded 60 g kg–0.75 day–1. Our hypothesis of a trade-off between intake and digestion was not supported for protein but was supported for lipid. Results of this study imply that a flexible digestive system for harbor seals can compensate for ingesting prey of lower energy density by increasing gut fill and enhancing protein and lipid assimilation, to sustain digestible energy intake.Abbreviations DM dry matter - DEI digestible energy intake - DIT diet-induced thermogenesis - FF feeding frequency - MRT mean retention time Communicated by: G. Heldmaier  相似文献
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Summary High variation in laying date and clutch size of the blue tit between a Mediterranean mixed habitat on the mainland, southern France, and a sclerophyllous habitat on the island of Corsica is hypothesized to be related to differences in the food supply. The diet of the nestlings and feeding frequencies were studied using camera nestboxes and electronic chronographs. Food items brought to the nestlings were much more diverse on Corsica than on the mainland, including many fewer caterpillars and a wider range of taxa. However, when expressed as a volume index, prey items were on average larger on Corsica than on the mainland. Feeding frequencies were significantly lower on Corsica. A good correlation was found in both habitats between laying date and the caterpillar peak date, although both the leafing development of oaks and the peak of abundance of caterpillars occurred 3 weeks later in the Corsican sclerophyllous trees than in the mainland deciduous ones. Differences in the feeding ecology of tits between the two habitats are discussed in the light of the evergreen habit, which means that only 30% of leaves are available for phyllophagous insects instead of 100% in deciduous trees. the combination of a late and low food supply in evergreen trees is the best explanation for the differences in breeding traits betwen the two populations.  相似文献
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