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Heterologous protein expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris   总被引:157,自引:0,他引:157  
During the past 15 years, the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has developed into a highly successful system for the production of a variety of heterologous proteins. The increasing popularity of this particular expression system can be attributed to several factors, most importantly: (1) the simplicity of techniques needed for the molecular genetic manipulation of P. pastoris and their similarity to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the most well-characterized experimental systems in modern biology; (2) the ability of P. pastoris to produce foreign proteins at high levels, either intracellularly or extracellularly; (3) the capability of performing many eukaryotic post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation, disulfide bond formation and proteolytic processing; and (4) the availability of the expression system as a commercially available kit. In this paper, we review the P. pastoris expression system: how it was developed, how it works, and what proteins have been produced. We also describe new promoters and auxotrophic marker/host strain combinations which extend the usefulness of the system.  相似文献
植物超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的研究进展   总被引:107,自引:0,他引:107       下载免费PDF全文
马旭俊  朱大海 《遗传》2003,25(2):225-231
超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)在需氧原核生物和真核生物中广泛存在,是活性氧清除系统中第一个发挥作用的抗氧化酶。植物正常代谢过程和在各种环境胁迫下均能产生活性氧和自由基,活性氧和自由基的积累引起细胞结构和功能的破坏。SOD岐化超氧物阴离子自由基生成过氧化氢和分子氧,在保护细胞免受氧化损伤过程中具有十分重要的作用。本文综述了SOD的功能、在细胞中的分布、表达调控和与植物抗逆性的关系。 Abstract:Superoxide Dismutases (SODs) are ubiquitously expressed antioxidant enzyme in aerobic organisms and catalyze dismutation of superoxide anion to hydrogen and molecular oxygen,the first step in active oxygen-scavenging systems.SODs play a central role in protecting cells against the toxic effects of reactive oxygen species generated during normal cellular metabolic activity or as a result of various environmental stresses.This paper reviews the expression and regulation of Sod genes and their functional role(s) during development and in response to stresses.  相似文献
植物基因组表达序列标签(EST)计划研究进展   总被引:60,自引:0,他引:60       下载免费PDF全文
植物表达序列标签(EST)计划是随机挑选cDNA克隆,并对其3′或5′端进行大规模一次性测序,将得到的150~500 bp长度的DNA片段与数据库中的序列进行比较,获得对基因组结构、组织、表达等认识的基因组研究策略.就近年来国际植物EST计划的实施情况、植物EST计划的研究范围、生物信息学在EST研究中的应用、EST数据库及查询、植物EST研究中遇到的问题等方面内容进行了综述.  相似文献
转基因植物中外源基因的遗传学行为   总被引:58,自引:0,他引:58  
1984年,首次利用农杆菌Ti质粒将外源基因导人烟草获得成功[1」,随后,转基因禾本科作物在水稻上也获得了成功[2,3]。随着各种遗传转化技术的创立与改进,近十几年来,在许多作物上都获得了转基因植株。植物遗传转化技术在基础研究和应用研究中的价值得到了很大体现。尤其是在应用研究上,植物遗传转化技术与常规的育种技术相比,它以超越种间隔离的特点吸引了广大的分子育种家投入到这方面的研究。迄今为止,许多有应用前景的基因已导入到双子叶植物和单子叶植物,并有少量转基因植物已释放到大田应用[4,5]。我们实验室…  相似文献
A set of plasmids has been constructed utilizing the promoter, 5 untranslated exon, and first intron of the maize ubiquitin (Ubi-1) gene to drive expression of protein coding sequences of choice. Plasmids containing chimaeric genes for ubiquitin-luciferase (Ubi-Luc), ubiquitin--glucuronidase (Ubi-GUS), and ubiquitin-phosphinothricin acetyl transferase (Ubi-bar) have been generated, as well as a construct containing chimaeric genes for bothUbi-GUS andUbi-bar in a single plasmid. Another construct was generated to allow cloning of protein coding sequences of choice onBam HI andBam HI-compatible restriction fragments downstream of theUbi-1 gene fragment. Because theUbi-1 promotor has been shown to be highly active in monocots, these constructs may be useful for generating high-level gene expression of selectable markers to facilitate efficient transformation of monocots, to drive expression of reference reporter genes in studies of gene expression, and to provide expression of biotechnologically important protein products in transgenic plants.  相似文献
植物多酚氧化酶的研究进展   总被引:53,自引:1,他引:52  
多酚氧化酶(polyphenol oxidase,PPO)是一类普遍存在于植物、真菌和昆虫质体中,由核基因编码,能与铜相结合的金属蛋白酶.它能分别催化单酚羟基和二羟基酚氧化为O-二酚和O-醌.植物多酚氧化酶是许多果蔬等农产品酶促褐变的主要原因,同时它在植物的光合作用、抗病虫害、生长发育以及花色的形成中起一定作用.本文综述了植物多酚氧化酶在细胞学、分子遗传学及其生产应用等方面的研究进展.  相似文献
巴斯德毕赤酵母的基因表达系统研究进展   总被引:52,自引:1,他引:51       下载免费PDF全文
巴斯德毕赤酵母是一种近年来广泛使用的基因表达系统,它具有表达率高、遗传稳定、产物可分泌、发酵工艺成熟等许多优点.综述了该系统在载体类型、载体元件(包括启动子、选择标记和信号肽序列)、受体类型、以及提高整合拷贝数等方面的进展.  相似文献
Members of the Chenopodiaceae, such as sugar beet and spinach, accumulate glycine betaine in response to salinity or drought stress. The last enzyme in the glycine betaine biosynthetic pathway is betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). In sugar beet the activity of BADH was found to increase two- to four-fold in both leaves and roots as the NaCl level in the irrigation solution was raised from 0 to 500 mM. This increase in BADH activity was paralleled by an increase in level of translatable BADH mRNA. Several cDNAs encoding BADH were cloned from a gt10 libary representing poly(A)+ RNA from salinized leaves of sugar beet plants, by hybridization with a spinach BADH cDNA. Three nearly full-length cDNA clones were confirmed to encode BADH by their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence identity to spinach BADH; these clones showed minor nucleotide sequence differences consistent with their being of two different BADH alleles. The clones averaged 1.7 kb and contained an open reading frame predicting a polypeptide of 500 amino acids with 83% identity to spinach BADH. RNA gel blot analysis of total RNA showed that salinization to 500 mM NaCl increased BADH mRNA levels four-fold in leaves and three-fold in the taproot. DNA gel blot analyses indicated the presence of at least two copies of BADH in the haploid sugar beet genome.  相似文献
Identification and characterization of new plant microRNAs using EST analysis   总被引:49,自引:0,他引:49  
Seventy-five previously known plant microRNAs (miRNAs) were classified into 14 families according to their gene sequence identity. A total of 18,694 plant expressed sequence tags (EST) were found in the GenBank EST databases by comparing all previously known Arabidopsis miRNAs to GenBank‘s plant EST databases with BLAST algorithms. After removing the EST sequences with high numbers (more than 2) of mismatched nucleotides, a total of 812 EST contigs were identified. After predicting and scoring the RNA secondary structure of the 812 EST sequences using mFold software, 338 new potential miRNAs were identified in 60 plant species, miRNAs are widespread. Some microRNAsmay highly conserve in the plant kingdom, and they may have the same ancestor in very early evolution. There is no nucleotide substitution in most miRNAs among many plant species. Some of the new identified potential miRNAs may be induced and regulated by environmental biotic and abiotic stresses. Some may be preferentially expressed in specific tissues, and are regulated by developmental switching. These findings suggest that EST analysis is a good alternative strategy for identifying new miRNA candidates, their targets, and other genes. A large number of miRNAs exist in different plant species and play important roles in plant developmental switching and plant responses to environmental abiotic and biotic stresses as well as signal transduction. Environmental stresses and developmental switching may be the signals for synthesis and regulation of miRNAs in plants. A model for miRNA induction and expression, and gene regulation by miRNA is hypothesized.  相似文献
水稻杂种一代与亲本幼苗基因表达差异的分析   总被引:48,自引:0,他引:48  
杂种优势是一种普遍存在的生物学现象,其形成的原因十分复杂。本世纪初,Bruce和Shull相继提出的杂种优势形成的显性互补假设和超亲优势假设至今仍作为一种理论模型而缺乏实验证实。水稻杂种优势的利用自70年代三系配套技术建立得到了广泛的应用,但水稻杂种优势形成的遗传学基础目前还知之甚少。在水稻杂种优势形成机理研究中,分别从生理生化代谢、同工酶分析、DNA限制性片段多态性和DNA含量差异进行了分析,但杂种优势形成的分子机理仍未得到阐明。杂种优势的形成是与异质化相关的过程,它涉及到两个遗传背景不同的体系的相互作用。因此,在相互作用过程中,亲本基因的表达与调控就决定了杂种一代的基因表达类型和特性。因此,我们从分析基因表达与调控入手,运用mRNA差异展示技术分析了玉米杂种一代与亲本基因表达的差异,揭示了不少有意义的现象。本研究以水稻籼型杂交组合(汕优63:珍汕97A×明恢63)为材料,探讨水稻杂种一代与亲本基因表达的差异,揭示了杂种优势形成过程中的一些重要现象。  相似文献
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