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Highly diversified colorations among springtails (Collembola) have been widely used for species diagnosis, but their phylogenetic significance is poorly known. We addressed this issue in the largest Entomobryinae genus Entomobrya, which possesses variable color patterns among species. The relationships within the genus and to other genera have also rarely been studied. Based on material mainly from China, we have conducted a multilocus phylogeny and topology tests with likelihood and Bayesian algorithms, and accordingly demonstrated the non‐monophyly of Chinese Entomobrya. The division of five clades, including Entomobrya and several related genera, coincided well with five types of colorations, respectively. Further analyses of divergence time and historical biogeography revealed that Chinese Entomobrya originated mainly from Palearctic (northern and western) China in the Paleocene and Eocene. This study highlights the great phylogenetic values as well as taxonomic uses of coloration in Chinese Entomobrya. Multiple phylogenetic and biogeographic origins of Entomobrya imply its complicated relationships with both scaled and unscaled genera of Entomobryinae.  相似文献
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