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1.
白蜡窄吉丁虫在中国的研究现状与分布调查   总被引:7,自引:2,他引:5       下载免费PDF全文
 2002年在美国密执安州发现了一重大外来入侵害虫,白蜡窄吉丁Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 由于该虫新近在美国发现,危害白蜡树,故英文名称为Emerald Ash Borer (EAB)。初步分析显示,该虫至少在5年前就已传入美国,只是现在刚爆发被发现。目前该虫在美国密执安州和加拿大安大略省可致死各种大小的白蜡树。该虫在我国曾被定名为花曲柳窄吉丁Agrilus marcopoli Obenberger,为鞘翅目吉丁科。据资料报道分布于黑龙江、吉林、辽宁、山东、内蒙古和台湾等地;在国外分布于朝鲜,日本,蒙古,俄罗斯远东地区。危害木樨科属树木。两年一代或一年一代,因地而已。在东北三省主要危害水曲柳和花曲柳等树木,但不是主要害虫。天津市1993年在引种白蜡树上发现了白蜡窄吉丁,1998年严重爆发造成大面积白蜡树死亡。在亚洲的其他分布区,该虫还危害另外一些阔叶树,如多种蜡树、榆树等。鉴于该虫的广泛分布和寄主树种多及毁灭性危害的特点,美国一些专家认为其潜在危害不亚于1996年在美国发现的光肩星天牛。因此,美国已全面开展对该虫的研究,包括资料收集,风险性评估,研究各种控制措施等。 本文是中美对此虫合作研究的一部分,旨在对该虫在我国的分布、 危害、 研究基础作一调查与回顾, 为下一步深入研究提供信息与参考资料。白蜡窄吉丁入侵北美再一次显示随着贸易的全球化发展, 外来入侵种问题也越来越严重。国际合作共同开展研究是控制入侵种的重要举措之一。  相似文献
2.
白蜡窄吉丁幼虫及其天敌在空间格局上的关系   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
调查了白蜡窄吉丁幼虫与其寄生性天敌白蜡吉丁柄腹茧蜂和捕食性天敌啄木鸟啄食白蜡窄吉丁的啄痕在空间格局上的规律.结果表明,在林间水平方向上,白蜡窄吉丁幼虫呈聚集分布,白蜡吉丁柄腹茧蜂和啄木鸟的啄痕也表现为聚集分布;在垂直方向上,白蜡窄吉丁幼虫分布于地面至3.37 m以下的树干,主要集中于1.50 m左右的主干,天敌也集中在此范围内活动.  相似文献
3.
白蜡吉丁柄腹茧蜂的羽化和产卵与寄主之间的关系   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
白蜡窄吉丁是危害白蜡属树木的一种重要蛀干害虫,因其幼虫期高度的隐蔽性生活而极难检测和防治.白蜡吉丁柄腹茧蜂是新发现外寄生于白蜡窄吉丁幼虫的优势天敌种,对寄主害虫的控制作用较强,具有良好的生物防治利用前景.研究调查了白蜡吉丁柄腹茧蜂及其寄主白蜡窄吉丁越冬代成虫羽化的时序差异、不同时期林间的寄生率、寄主密度与寄生率的关系以及寄主幼虫大小与茧蜂产卵量的关系.结果表明,越冬后白蜡吉丁柄腹茧蜂的羽化时间比其寄主害虫白蜡窄吉丁的羽化要晚1个多月.2003年白蜡吉丁柄腹茧蜂越冬代成虫的羽化从6月中旬持续到8月中旬,羽化高峰期在7月份;寄主白蜡窄吉丁的羽化期在5月中下旬.2004年白蜡吉丁柄腹茧蜂越冬代成虫的羽化从5月下旬持续到7月下旬,羽化高峰期在6月下旬至7月上旬;寄主羽化期在4月中旬至5月中旬(室内).越冬后天敌的羽化时间刚好适应最早寄主发育到可供寄生的龄期,这是二者长期协同进化的结果,也表明白蜡吉丁柄腹茧蜂很可能是一种专性寄生蜂.林间白蜡吉丁柄腹茧蜂对白蜡窄吉丁幼虫的自然寄生率随着时间的推移总体上是逐步上升的.自然条件下茧蜂决定是否产卵与寄主幼虫的大小即龄期有关,它仅在前胸宽和体宽1.5 mm、体长12 mm以上,即3~4龄的寄主幼虫体表产卵,但只要接受寄主并产卵,不同龄期寄主幼虫上的产卵量无显著的差异.  相似文献
4.
5.
Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of the emerald ash borer were investigated, and seasonal changes in these mechanisms monitored. The majority of emerald ash borers survive winter as freeze-intolerant prepupae. In winter, A. planipennis prepupae have low supercooling points (∼−30 °C), which they achieve by accumulating high concentrations of glycerol (∼4 M) in their body fluids and by the synthesis of antifreeze agents. Cuticular waxes reduce inoculation from external ice. This is the first comprehensive study of seasonal changes in cold tolerance in a buprestid beetle.  相似文献
6.
Entomopathogenic fungi of the genera Isaria and Purpureocillium were recovered from infestation sites of emerald ash borer (EAB) in Southern Ontario, Canada. Isolates were identified using morphological characters and by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal DNA gene and partial β-tubulin gene. Phylogenetic analysis and constructed trees based on the ITS and β-tubulin gene explicitly confirm isolates L66B, SY17-a and LHY46-a as Isaria farinosa and B3A, B59A and SY45B-a as Purpureocillium lilacinum. Pathogenicity was tested in the laboratory against adult EAB using a single concentration (2.0×107 conidia/ml) applied topically to adults. Controls included three commercial isolates: Isaria fumosorosea LRC176, Metarhizium brunneum LRC187 and Beauveria bassiana strain GHA. The native isolates I. farinosa L66B and P. lilacinum SY45B-a killed 75 and 50% of the beetles 14 days post-inoculation. Although these indigenous entomogenous fungi were less virulent compared with the commercial isolates, yearly isolation from EAB populations suggests they are one of the natural mortality factors of EAB in Canada.  相似文献
7.
The effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA, applied as BotaniGard ES, on newly colonised and well-established populations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) were evaluated in the field using foliar and trunk sprays in Michigan in 2004–2005. Results from field trials at a newly colonised white ash site showed a 41% reduction in A. planipennis population in fungal-treated trees compared with that of untreated controls. In addition, fungal infection was also found in 20% of the larval population within 14 days of incubation under laboratory conditions. At a site with a well-established Agrilus planipennis population in green ash trees, larval density was reduced by 47% for trees treated with the fungus compared with that of the controls; 21% of larvae from the current generation were found infected after 14 days of laboratory incubation. Fungal-treated green ash trees also produced fewer adults emerging in the next generation, with a 63% reduction in adult density observed in treated trees compared to that of controls. As a result, fungal-treated trees sustained 42% less crown dieback than did controls. A. planipennis larval density was negatively correlated with trunk height above the ground, and positively correlated with log diameter. Results of laboratory leaf bioassays on A. planipennis adults showed that fungal conidia persisted well under field conditions, with mortality of 78–100% at 7 – days post – exposure for leaves collected between 2 and 264 h after application. Potential strategies for using B. bassiana strain GHA for managing A. planipennis are discussed.  相似文献
8.
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus) trees. In captivity, mating is initiated by beetles at least 10 days old, and appears to be based simply on random contact with a member of the opposite sex. In the field, male A. planipennis search the tree during flight, and attempt to copulate with dead beetles of both sexes pinned to leaves, after descending rapidly straight down onto the pinned beetles from a height of from 30 to 100 cm. All evidence suggests that males find potential mates using visual cues. Equal numbers of feral males approach all ‘dummy’ beetles; however, considerably more time is spent attempting copulation with dead females rather than males, suggesting a contact chemical cue. Sticky traps prepared from dead, pinned EAB capture crawling insects as well as male A. planipennis, at a rate similar to that at which small purple sticky traps of similar overall area capture crawling insects and both sexes of feral EAB.  相似文献
9.
In this publication, we review the biology, ecology, invasion history, impacts and management options of Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus plannipennis, with a particular focus on its invasion in Europe. Agrilus planipennis (EAB) is a wood‐boring beetle native to East Asia. Having caused massive damages on ash species in North America in the last decades, it was first recorded in Europe in 2003 in Russia (Moscow). All ash (Fraxinus) species native to Europe and North America are known to be susceptible to EAB attacks, which cause high tree mortality even among formerly healthy trees. Recorded expansion rates are between 2.5 and 80 km/year in North America and between 13 and 41 km/year in European Russia. Given current expansion rates, EAB is expected to reach Central Europe within 15–20 years. A combination of mechanical, biological and chemical control and phytosanitary measures may reduce its impact, which nevertheless most likely will be substantial. There is an urgent need to identify native enemies in Europe, to test suitable biocontrol agents and to develop early detection and management measures. Although it is obvious that EAB will become a major pest in Europe, early and dedicated response will likely be able to reduce the level of ash mortality, and thus improve the opportunity for long‐term survival of ash as an important component in European forests.  相似文献
10.
The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is a destructive invasive beetle that has caused mortality of millions of Fraxinus spp. trees in North America. The extended interval between insect establishment, detection and management has allowed this pest to spread over large parts of North America. Artificial purple canopy traps are currently used in national detection surveys for this beetle. The effectiveness of purple canopy traps at low‐to‐moderate A. planipennis population densities in relation to road proximity was evaluated in 2013 and 2014. Transects of traps were established at set distances from roads in northern Michigan near an isolated A. planipennis infestation. It was hypothesized that trap effectiveness is influenced by road proximity, and that traps placed closer to roads were more likely to detect A. planipennis. A significant relationship was established between the mean number of A. planipennis captured on traps and road proximity (nearness), while no significant relationship was observed between detection success and road proximity. These findings suggest establishing traps further from roads (which can be less economically efficient) provides no greater likelihood of detection than establishing traps on or near the road edge. Basal area of non‐ash and ash species, beetle population density, vigour rating, ash tree species and sampling duration were shown to significantly influence the number of A. planipennis captured on traps.  相似文献
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