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抗条锈病小偃麦双体异附加系山农87074-519的鉴定   总被引:7,自引:1,他引:6  
综合利用抗性接种鉴定、细胞学分析、SSR分子标记和基因组原位杂交(GISH)技术相结合的方法,对从长穗偃麦草与小麦复合杂交后代中选育的抗条锈病种质系山农87074-519进行了鉴定。结果表明,山农87074-519的根尖细胞染色体数目2n=44,花粉母细胞减数分裂中期I(PMCMI)绝大多数细胞内可观察到22个二价体,平均染色体构型2n=44=21.82Ⅱ 0.36Ⅰ,它与普通小麦中国春杂种F1的多数花粉母细胞内染色体构型为2n=21Ⅱ 1Ⅰ,因此它是1个附加了1对长穗偃麦草染色体的双体异附加系;以假鹅冠草St基因组总DNA作探针进行原位杂交发现山农87074-519的44条染色体中有2条出现黄绿色杂交信号,且杂交信号遍布整条染色体,证明其附加的长穗偃麦草染色体为St基组;利用SSR分子标记技术,在170对SSR引物中筛选出特异引物BARC165,它能稳定地在山农87074-519中扩增出长穗偃麦草特异标记BARC165268;将长穗偃麦草中BARC165的特异扩增片段克隆测序后制备成探针进行原位杂交,可在山农87074-519的间期染色体和有丝分裂中期染色体检测到杂交信号。山农87074-519综合农艺性状较好,对条锈病免疫,其抗性基因为显性,且位于附加的长穗偃麦草St基组染色体上,暂将其表示为YrSt。该种质系在小麦的遗传改良中具有重要利用价值。  相似文献
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试验用压片法对(普通小麦/长穗偃麦草)F1小孢子发生和雄配子体发育进行了细胞学观察.观察表明:1.(普通小麦/长穗偃麦草)F1花粉母细胞减数分裂过程中出现许多异常现象;在PMC M1出现较高频率的单价体和多价体;但是减数分裂过程能够完成,并且四分孢子的败育率较低。2.在雄配子体发育过程中可观察到具有多微核、体积不等的小孢子,并发现经过对称孢子有丝分裂产生的二胞花粉;在花粉发育的不同时期均可观察到花  相似文献
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Two-step one-dimensional SDS-PAGE analysis of LMW subunits of glutelin   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Summary Analysis of intergeneric substitution lines in hexaploid wheats by a two-step electrophoretic method of protein separation revealed that low-molecular-weight (LMW) subunits of glutelin in Triticum longissimum, T. Umbelullatum, Elytrigia elongata (2 x) were controlled by chromosomes/chromosome arms 1S l , 1U, and 1ES, respectively. A LMW glutelin band in Secale montanum was detected but its chromosomal location could not be determined. Genes controlling gliadins and HMW subunits of glutelin were also located on chromosome 1S l in T. longissimum.The term glutelin refers to the polymeric prolamins of cereals, e.g., glutenins in wheat, HMW, and 75-k secalins in rye  相似文献
4.
用石蜡切片法,对小麦(Triticumaestivum)和长穗偃麦草(Elytrigiaelongata)杂交的受精和早期胚胎发育进行了观察。结果表明,长穗偃麦草花粉在小麦柱头上萌发良好,花粉管可顺利长入花柱和胚囊。观察的170个小麦子房中,1765%发生了双受精,产生了胚和胚乳;941%发生了单卵受精,只产生胚而无胚乳;471%发生了单极核受精,只产生胚乳而无胚;总受精率为3177%;成胚率为2706%。由于胚乳的缺乏或发育异常及败育,最终难以获得有生活力的种子。为小麦与长穗偃麦草远缘杂交提供了细胞胚胎学证据。  相似文献
5.
R. R. Blank 《Plant and Soil》2002,239(1):155-163
Wetlands and riparian habitats in the western United States are being invaded by the exotic crucifer Lepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed, tall whitetop). It was hypothesized that L. latifolium was an effective competitor due to its ability to make available and take up more nitrogen than vegetation it is replacing. The hypothesis was tested by comparing amidohydrolase activities, available soil N, 30 day aerobic N-mineralization rates, and plant uptake of N in paired L. latifolium invaded and non-invaded plots occupied by Elytrigia elongata (tall wheatgrass). Attributes were measured by date (June 1998, September 1998, April 1999, and May 2000) and by soil depth (0–15, 15–30, 30–50, and 50–86 cm). Lepidium latifolium invaded sites had significantly (p 0.05) greater urease, amidase, glutaminase, and asparaginase activities than sites occupied by E. elongata for most dates and soil depths. In addition, despite far greater uptake of N per unit area, L. latifolium sites still had significantly greater available N and N-mineralization potentials than E. elongata for most dates and depths. In general, enzyme activities significantly correlated with available soil N, with a stronger relationship for sites invaded by L. latifolium. There were few significant linear correlations of enzyme activities with net N mineralization potentials for L. latifolium sites, but many for sites occupied by E. elongata. These data support the working hypothesis.  相似文献
6.
Direct genomic DNA amplification with the primers recognizing the NBS–kinase sequence of the wheat gene Cre3(Genbank accession AF052641) was used to obtain partial homologs of this gene in perennial and annual rye, wheat, and tall wheatgrass. The nucleotide sequences of the cloned fragments and their deduced amino acid sequences were compared to the already-known Cre3homologs in other wheat, aegilops, and barley genotypes. Within the tribe Triticeae, the extent of homology ranged from 86 to 94% for nucleotide sequences and from 74 to 96% for the deduced amino acid sequences, with the most variable region between Kin3 and PR3 conserved motifs.  相似文献
7.
长穗偃麦草细胞质小麦核质杂种与核共体进行了比较试验,结果证明:核质杂种株高降低5-8cm,抽穗期略有推迟,抗寒性有明显提高。其它农艺性状,如分蘖数,穗长,穗粒数,结实率等性状没有明显差异。但是在核质杂种中粒粒蛋白质含量增加了11.79%和27.33%,被分析的17种氨基酸含量也是明显提高,提高幅度12.37-53.09%。  相似文献
8.
在用普通小麦对长穗偃麦草(Etytrigia elongata=Agropyron elongatum,2n=70)的核代换回交过程中,在BC_9F_1发现了一个超矮秆核质杂种小麦,株高35厘米左右,定名为小偃矮。细胞学观察和与普通小麦正反杂交的遗传分析,证明:(1) 小偃矮是一个异源胞质单体附加系(21″W+1′Ag);(2) 长穗偃麦草细胞质和附加的外来染色体没有携带矮秆基因;(3) 矮秆遗传主要受细胞核内一对显性矮化基因控制。  相似文献
9.
由于一些基因的特殊碱基序列限制,使得应用一种技术获得基因的全长cDNA序列比较困难。本研究结合RACE和Genome Walking技术从十倍体长穗偃麦草(Elytrigia elongata,2n=70)中克隆了AP2家族的一个全长cDNA序列,命名为EeAP2.2。序列分析表明,该基因具有一个837bp的开放阅读框,编码279个氨基酸残基,含有一个保守的AP2结构域,是AP2大家族的一个新成员。该基因编码的氨基酸序列与GenBank已有的普通小麦AP2家族两个同源基因编码蛋白TaDREB1和TaDREBW50(登录号分别为:AAL01124.1和AAY44605.1)具有98%的氨基酸序列一致性, 与大麦AP2蛋白HvDREB1-a(登录号AAY25517.1),高羊茅AP2蛋白FaDREB2A (登录号CAG30547.1) 及水稻OsDREB2.2(登录号AY064403)的氨基酸序列一致性分别为 93%、86%、69%。说明该基因与小麦AP2家族基因的同源性最高。本研究除获得了长穗偃麦草一个重要抗逆转录因子基因EeAP2.2的全长cDNA序列外,也提供了一种快速、有效克隆功能基因的方法。  相似文献
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