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1.
温度对三品系角突臂尾轮虫生活史策略的影响   总被引:15,自引:5,他引:10  
应用群体累积培养法 ,以浓度为 6 .0× 10 6cells/mL蛋白核小球藻 (Chlorellapyrenoidosa)为食物 ,研究了温度(2 0℃、2 5℃和 30℃ )对青岛、广州与芜湖等品系的角突臂尾轮虫 (BrachionusangularisGosse)的种群增长、个体大小和卵大小的影响。结果表明 ,温度对各品系轮虫的种群增长率和个体大小等均有显著影响。青岛品系和广州品系轮虫种群增长的最适温度分别为 30℃和 2 5℃ ,芜湖品系轮虫则在 30℃下不能生存。青岛品系和广州品系的种群增长率均与温度呈曲线相关 ,回归方程分别为 :Y =0 .0 0 0 9X2 - 0 .0 0 6 1X 0 .4 0 90和Y =- 0 .0 14 4X2 0 .74 12X - 8.375 1。各品系轮虫个体大小和卵大小均随温度的升高而呈现出下降趋势。在本研究的温度范围内 ,广州、青岛和芜湖各品系轮虫个体变异分别达 4 2 .90 %、14 .4 3%和 6 .2 3% ;2 0℃和 2 5℃下芜湖品系分别高出青岛品系达 74 .91%和87.98%。在温度和品系两因素中 ,品系对轮虫个体体积有较大的影响  相似文献
2.
以蛋白核小球藻为食物 ,应用群体累积培养法研究了食物浓度对角突臂尾轮虫种群增长、个体大小和卵大小等的影响 .结果表明 ,食物浓度对角突臂尾轮虫种群增长率、个体大小和卵大小均有极显著影响 .其中 ,轮虫种群增长率与食物浓度间呈曲线相关 ;当食物浓度为 8.2 4 5 3× 10 6cells·ml-1时 ,种群增长率达最大值 0 .6 0 85d-1;在所研究的食物浓度范围内 ,轮虫个体具有随食物浓度的增大而增大的趋势 ,轮虫卵体积在中等食物浓度范围 (6 .0× 10 6~ 9.0× 10 6cells·ml-1)时较大  相似文献
3.
阐明五种游蛇科动物雌体大小、窝卵数和卵大小之间的关系和雌性繁殖特征的种间差异。5种蛇均产单窝卵,产卵高峰期为6月下旬至7月,窝卵数与雌体大小(SVL)呈显著的正相关,相对窝卵重与雌体SVL无关,卵理与窝卵数无关。灰鼠蛇卵重与雌体SVL呈正相关,赤链蛇、王锦蛇、黑眉锦蛇和乌梢蛇的卵重与雌体SVL无关,黑眉锦蛇卵长径与窝卵娄呈负相关,其余4种蛇卵长径与窝卵数无关。5种蛇卵长径与短径无关。黑眉锦蛇卵短径  相似文献
4.
The adaptive significance of egg size of skippers (Lepidoptera; Hesperiidae) in Japan was evaluated in relation to the leaf toughness of their major host grasses. The hesperids that fed on tougher grasses laid larger eggs. Hesperids that laid larger eggs were larger in body size, but lower in fecundity. They also had a wider host range. Thus, despite the lower fecundity, hesperids may benefit from large eggs by having a wider host range of larvae. Grass feeders had wider range of host plants than broadleaf feeders.  相似文献
5.
DOES TOTAL REPRODUCTIVE EFFORT EVOLVE INDEPENDENTLY OF OFFSPRING SIZE?   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
In all species, patterns of reproductive allocation have important fitness consequences and therefore important implications for life-history evolution. Nearly universally, theory in this field has modeled as independent the evolution of total allocation to offspring and the subsequent division of this allocation into many small versus few large offspring. Yet, some theory and a very small amount of experimental evidence suggest that these life-history traits may be evolutionarily linked. Using comparative analyses of copepod life histories, we illustrate that rather than being evolutionarily independent these traits can be linked, in this case, across a very large clade of invertebrates. Our results indicate that a more complete understanding of the evolution of these traits will require greater consideration of simultaneous allocation decisions, rather than sequential ones, and other genetic and selective mechanisms.  相似文献
6.
7.
1. Maternal adult diet and body size influence the fecundity of a female and possibly the quality and the performance of her offspring via egg size or egg quality. In laboratory experiments, negative effects in the offspring generation have often been obscured by optimal rearing conditions.
2. To estimate these effects in the Yellow Dung Fly, Scathophaga stercoraria , how maternal body size and adult nutritional status affected her fecundity, longevity and egg size were first investigated.
3. Second, it was investigated how female age and adult nutritional experience, mediated through the effects of egg size or egg quality, influenced the performance of offspring at different larval densities.
4. Maternal size was less important than maternal adult feeding in increasing reproductive output. Without food restriction, large females had larger clutch sizes and higher oviposition rates, whereas under food restriction this advantage was reversed in favour of small females.
5. Offspring from mothers reared under nutritional stress experienced reduced fitness in terms of egg mortality and survival to adult emergence. If the offspring from low-quality eggs survived, the transmitted maternal food deficiency only affected adult male body size under stressful larval environments.
6. Smaller egg sizes due to maternal age only slightly affected the performance of the offspring under all larval conditions.  相似文献
8.
三个品系角突臂尾轮虫生长和发育的比较研究   总被引:5,自引:5,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
以浓度为2.4×10^6cells.ml^-1的斜生栅藻为食物,在25℃下,对采自青岛、广州与芜湖等品系的角突臂尾轮虫的胚胎发育、生殖前期和最小世代时间等个体发育阶段历时以及幼体和成体的个体大小、卵体积和相对卵体积进行了研究.结果表明,轮虫的胚胎发育时间、生殖前期历时和最小世代时间等在品系间均存在显著差异.芜湖品系具有最长的胚胎发育时间,其次为广州品系和青岛品系;青岛品系的生殖前期最长,广州品系最短;而最小世代时间以广州品系最小,青岛品系和芜湖品系次之,后两者之间无显著差异.各品系轮虫胚胎发育时间具有随其相对卵体积的增大而缩短的趋势.同一年龄段各品系间的轮虫幼体体积均有显著差异,且均以芜湖品系为最大.三品系轮虫个体幼体体积与其年龄间均呈曲线相关;刚孵化出的幼体体积与其成体间差异在芜湖品系达244.24%,青岛和广州品系分别为182.89%和156.28%.轮虫成体的个体大小、卵大小和相对卵大小在品系间也存在显著差异.  相似文献
9.
Development of European bitterling in the gills of freshwater mussels   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
The development of bitterling embryos within the unique environment of a freshwater mussel's gills requires a departure from typical cyprinid embryological development. Eggs are large (2·6×1·7 mm), illustrating the low risk of predation, and elliptical; a response to unionid gill morphology and a way of increasing the transfer rates of respiratory and excretory products to and from the tissues. The yolk sac develops elongated lateral processes during early ontogeny; these secure the embryo into the host's interlamellar space. Once the larva is capable of movement (8·2 mm) the lateral processes are lost and the larva becomes less dependent of the host's gills for the provision of oxygen. Hatching (3·3 mm) and pigmentation of the blood (6·4 mm) occur relatively early; this may increase the rate of oxygen supply to the tissues. Pigmentation of the eyes and appearance of the melanophores occurs relatively late (7·4 mm and 7·9 mm, respectively); embryos are not required to detect or avoid predators. Bitterling larvae generally emerge from the host once the yolk sac has been consumed (10·5 mm); this may mark a change in respiratory and nutritional requirements.  相似文献
10.
To examine the link between early experience and subsequentreproductive performance, we experimentally manipulated theearly experience of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Salmon ofa common genetic background were reared as juveniles eithernaturally in the river or artificially in a hatchery (sea ranched),depriving them of river experience, and then allowed to growto maturity naturally in the ocean. At maturity, the competitiveand reproductive abilities of these fish were compared in fourexperiments quantifying reproductive success. Although levelsof aggressive behavior were similar, the experience-deprived,sea-ranched males were involved in more prolonged aggressiveencounters and incurred greater wounding and mortality thanwild males. Furthermore, sea-ranched males were less able tomonopolize spawnings and as a result obtained 51% the reproductivesuccess of wild males across the experiments. This reproductiveinferiority varied directly with the male density and bias inthe sex ratio, reflecting the intensity of male breeding competition.A lower intensity of female than male competition was likelyresponsible for the lack of differences in breeding performancebetween sea-ranched and wild females. Sea-ranched females, however,produced smaller eggs than wild females, apparently in responseto their higher juvenile growth rate. Differences in migratorybehavior were also apparent, as sea-ranched males and femalesascended the River Imsa later than wild fish. Our results indicatethat early experience has implications for subsequent adultreproductive performance, affecting the development of specializedskills and traits important not only for early life, but alsolater life.  相似文献
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