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亚致死剂量杀虫剂对异色瓢虫繁殖力的影响   总被引:13,自引:4,他引:9       下载免费PDF全文
为协调害虫的化学防治与生物防治,测定了吡虫啉、鱼藤酮、氰戊菊酯、阿维菌素、抗蚜威和印楝素6种杀虫剂亚致死剂量对异色瓢虫成虫繁殖力的影响.结果表明,各处理异色瓢虫每雌每日产卵量为40~55粒,吡虫啉接触法和饲喂法预处理及鱼藤酮和印楝素饲喂预处理后,均显著低于对照.所有处理间每雌累积产卵量差异不显著.6种药剂2种方式处理异色瓢虫后,其所产卵的孵化率均低于对照,从卵发育至蛹期的累积存活率均显著降低.吡虫啉两种方式处理和氰戊菊酯接触处理,从卵至蛹期的总发育历期显著延长,鱼藤酮两种方式处理和氰戊菊酯、阿维菌素、抗蚜威、印楝素饲喂法处理的总发育历期明显比对照缩短,而鱼藤酮和阿维菌素接触处理的与对照差异不显著.药剂直接浸渍处理异色瓢虫卵后,各处理卵的孵化率均较对照降低.氰戊菊酯处理的l龄幼虫存活率也明显较对照低,2龄至蛹期的存活率也有所下降.鱼藤酮和氰戊菊酯处理的总发育历期显著延长.这些研究结果显示,低剂量的杀虫剂对异色瓢虫繁殖力的影响很复杂,药剂的类型、作用方式、毒性高低以及给药途径等均影响到试验结果.  相似文献
2.
Ovariole number in univoltine populations of the grasshoppers Melanoplus femurrubrum (De Geer) and M. scudderi scudderi (Uhler) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) from Virginia was studied. Ovariole number in M. femurrubrum was found to vary among three geographic populations, and between years. Ovariole number did not vary between years in one population of M. s. scudderi. Ovariole number in M. femurrubrum was positively correlated with the mean length of the growing season at each site and precipitation during August-September of the previous year (adult season of the maternal generation). In the laboratory, nymphal rearing temperatures did not affect ovariole number in M. femurrubrum, but it was found to be weakly correlated with egg size.
Résumé Le nombre d'ovarioles des criquets détermine le nombre maximum d'oeufs par ponte. Si la variabilité du nombre d'ovarioles des criquets a souvent été signalée, l'origine de ces variations n'a été examinée que pour quelques espèces migratrices, et cela, au laboratoire.Le nombre d'ovarioles des populations monovoltines de M. femurrubrum a changé suivant les populations et suivant les années. Une étude par régressions multiples a montré que le nombre d'ovarioles est lié à des caractéristiques écologiques de la génération maternelle: durée de la saison de développement, indiquée par la somme des températures au-dessus de 10°C, et précipitations en août et septembre. La durée de la saison de développement détermine le temps disponible pour la reproduction: les populations, aux saisons de développement les plus longues, ont plus de temps pour former une oothèque, et ainsi disposent des moyens métaboliques pour avoir plus d'ovarioles. Août-septembre est l'époque où les criquets deviennent adultes, commencent à s'alimenter avant la ponte, et pondent la majorité de leurs oothèques. On estime que l'effet des précipitations est indirect, par son action sur la quantité et la qualité des plantes-hôtes disponibles. Le nombre d'ovarioles n'est pas lié à la taille de M. femurrubrum ou de M. scudderi scudderi.Les effectifs de M. s. scudderi étaient insuffisants pour permettre de telles analyses; cependant, nous n'avons observé dans une station aucune modification du nombre d'ovarioles au cours des années.
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3.
Marine habitats are naturally patchy and anthropogenic disturbance can further fragment them. Many marine animals are sessile as adults or obligate inhabitants of particular habitats, so populations living in isolated patches of habitat are linked largely by dispersal of planktonic larvae. Theoretically, larvae are more likely to find and settle into large patches of habitat than small patches, thus small habitat patches may experience a more discontinuous supply of recruits resulting in small populations with unusual size- or age-structures or odd sex ratios — conditions where Allee effects on reproductive success are likely. We tested this hypothesis for the Caribbean spotted spiny lobster (Panulirus guttatus), an obligate inhabitant of coral patch reefs whose mating dynamics are size-dependent. We found that P. guttatus were less abundant on small reefs where their size structure and per capita reproductive success were significantly more variable, particularly among large females that are susceptible to sperm limitation that diminishes fertilization rates. These results are indicative of Allee effects and provide a mechanistic understanding of how size-dependent mating dynamics influence reproductive success in ways that alter population dynamics in patchy habitats.  相似文献
4.
Omnivorous arthropods make dietary choices according to the environment in which they forage, mainly availability/quality of plant and/or prey resources. Such decisions and their subsequent impacts on life‐history traits may be affected by the availability of nutrients and water to plants, that is, through bottom‐up forces. By setting up arenas for feeding behavior observation as well as glasshouse cages for plant preference assessment, we studied effects of the presence of prey (Lepidoptera eggs) and nitrogen/water availability to host tomato plants on the foraging behavior and life‐history traits in the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus (Heteroptera: Miridae). In the absence of prey, the predator fed equally on the plants treated with various levels of nitrogen and water. In the presence of prey, however, the feeding rate on plants decreased when the plant received low water input. The feeding rate on prey was positively correlated with feeding rate on plants; that is, prey feeding increased with plant feeding when the plants received high water input. Moreover, plants receiving high water input attracted more M. pygmaeus adults compared with those receiving low water input. For M. pygmaeus fitness, the presence of prey enhanced its fertility and longevity, but the longevity decreased when plants received low compared with high water input. In conclusion, the omnivorous predator may be obliged to feed on plants to obtain water, and plant water status may be a limiting factor for the foraging behavior and fitness of the omnivorous predator.  相似文献
5.
根据2017年和2018年在我国南海海域采集到的鸢乌贼(Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis)中型群雄性样本,利用生物统计分析和线性模型拟合等方法研究其有效繁殖力特性及其在性腺发育过程中的变化规律。结果表明,南海鸢乌贼中型群雄性胴长分布范围为114 ~ 153 mm,体重分布范围为55.2 ~ 174.7 g。个体精荚囊的长度为22 ~ 124 mm,精荚囊重量为0.03 ~ 3.07 g,两者呈幂函数关系,且均随着性腺发育而逐步增大。精荚囊长度及其重量与胴长和体重均呈线性函数关系。精荚囊长度及其重量均在性腺成熟度Ⅵ期时达到最大值,分别为(94.33 ± 21.64)mm和(1.57 ± 1.07)g。有效繁殖力为1 ~ 144条,胴长相对有效繁殖力为0.02 ~ 1.62 条/mm。随着个体生长发育,有效繁殖力在Ⅵ期达到最大值,相对有效繁殖力则在Ⅵ ~ Ⅶ期时趋于稳定。有效繁殖力与胴长、体重均呈线性函数关系,相对有效繁殖力与胴长、体重均呈幂函数关系。精荚长度为4.79 ~ 36.60 mm,精荚重量为0.000 2 ~ 0.020 0 g,两者符合幂函数关系,且均在Ⅵ期达到最大值。同时,精荚长度及其重量与胴长、体重均呈线性函数关系。研究表明,南海鸢乌贼中型群雄性个体的精荚囊、精荚和有效繁殖力均随着性腺发育而不断增大,且三者均与个体胴长、体重呈显著的函数关系。  相似文献
6.
To examine density dependence in the survival, growth, and reproduction of Pomacea canaliculata, we conducted an experiment in which snail densities were manipulated in a paddy field. We released paint-marked snails of 15–20 mm shell height into 12 enclosures (pens) of 16 m2 at one of five densities – 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128 snails per pen. The survival rate of released snails was 95% and was independent of snail density. The snail density had a significant effect on the growth and egg production of individual snails. This density dependence may have been caused by reduced food availability. The females at high density deposited fewer and smaller egg masses than those at low density, and consequently produced fewer eggs. The females at densities 8 and 16 deposited more than 3000 eggs per female, while the females at density 128 oviposited only 414 eggs. The total egg production per pen was, however, higher at higher snail density. The survival rates of juvenile snails were 21%–37% and were independent of adult density. The juvenile density was positively correlated with the total egg production per pen and hence was higher at higher adult density. However, the density of juveniles larger than 5 mm in shell height, i.e., juveniles that can survive an overwintering period, was not significantly different among density treatments. These results suggest that snail density after the overwintering period is independent of the density in the previous year. Thus, density dependence in growth and reproduction might regulate the population of P. canaliculata in paddies. Received: October 23, 1998 / Accepted: July 16, 1999  相似文献
7.
极端高温天气事件在高产作物种植区频繁发生,潜在影响了寄生蜂对害虫的防控能力.为明确短时极端高温对松毛虫赤眼蜂Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura成虫致死作用及子代发育适合度的影响,本研究模拟夏季田间最高气温,以42℃高温处理松毛虫赤眼蜂成蜂0.5h和1 h,统计并观测了各处理条件下母代蜂致死率、繁殖力、子代蜂寿命、羽化率、性比和畸形率.结果显示:短时高温对松毛虫赤眼蜂有致死作用,表现为雌、雄蜂直接死亡及子代羽化率降低.42℃处理1 h,雌、雄蜂死亡率分别为40.28%和58.25%.短时极端高温导致松毛虫赤眼蜂子代适合度降低,表现为雌蜂寿命缩短、繁殖力下降,子代蜂畸形率增加及子代蜂雄性比上升.结果表明,短时极端高温对松毛虫赤眼蜂适合度产生负面影响,降低种群数量.本研究为夏季田间释放松毛虫赤眼蜂提供重要理论依据.  相似文献
8.
1. When populations of herbivorous insects increase in density, they can alter the quantity or quality of their food. The impacts of diet‐related stressors on insect fitness have been investigated singly, but not simultaneously. 2. Foliage quantity and quality of red alder, Alnus rubra, were manipulated together with the presence of non‐entomopathogenic phylloplane bacteria to investigate their impacts, singly and in combination, on survival, pupal mass, growth rate, fecundity and egg quality of a cyclic forest insect, the western tent caterpillar, Malacosoma californicum pluviale. 3. Food limitation (half food) had strong negative impacts on all life‐history traits. When the larvae were fed continuously, however, neither ingesting phylloplane bacteria nor eating leaves from damaged branches (induced foliage) affected survival. In the half‐food treatment, ingesting bacteria further increased mortality, while feeding on induced foliage improved survival. 4. Growth rate and pupal mass of both sexes were reduced for larvae with food limitation compared with continuously fed insects and this was exacerbated when the larvae also ate bacteria‐treated leaves. A combination of bacteria and induced foliage also reduced larval growth rate by 5% in the full‐food treatment. 5. Fecundity (eggs per egg mass) was 2.7 times greater in full‐food than in food‐limited treatments but neither phylloplane bacteria nor plant induction had an effect. Insects fed induced foliage produced smaller eggs. Overall, there was no evidence of a three‐way interaction between the three stressors, although there were negative synergistic effects, primarily between food limitation and the ingestion of phylloplane bacteria.  相似文献
9.
Abstract Sublethal viral infections can cause changes in the body size and demography of insect vectors, with important consequences for population dynamics and the probability that individual mosquitoes will transmit disease. This study examined the effects of covert (sublethal) infection by Invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV‐6) on the demography of female Aedes aegypti and the relationship between key life history parameters in covertly infected female insects compared with healthy (control) insects or non‐infected mosquitoes that had survived exposure to virus inoculum without becoming infected. Of the female mosquitoes that emerged following exposure to virus inoculum and were offered blood meals, 29% (43/150) proved positive for covert IIV‐6 infection. The net reproductive rate (R0) of covertly infected females was 50% lower for infected females compared to control mosquitoes, whereas non‐infected exposed females had an R0 approximately 15% lower than that of controls. Reproduction caused a significant decrease of about 13 days in mosquito longevity compared to females that did not reproduce (P < 0.001). Infected females lived 5–8 days less than non‐infected exposed females or controls, respectively (P = 0.028). Infected females and non‐infected exposed females both had significantly shorter wings than control insects (P < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between wing length and longevity in covertly infected female mosquitoes but not in control or non‐infected exposed mosquitoes. Longer lived females produced more eggs in all treatments. There were no significant correlations between body size and fecundity or the production of offspring. There was also no correlation between fecundity and fertility, suggesting that sperm inactivation was a more likely cause of decreased fertility in older mosquitoes than sperm depletion. We conclude that covert infection by iridescent virus is likely to reduce the vectorial capacity of this mosquito.  相似文献
10.
To clarify the effects of sublethal concentration of insecticide on the growth, development and reproduction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the sublethal and transgenerational effects of the LC30 of six insecticides on adults and progeny (F1 and F2 generations) were studied using age-stage, two-sex life tables. Exposure to six insecticides had significant negative impacts on the life-history traits of B. dorsalis and led to reduced adult longevity and fecundity in F0, a longer larval stage duration in F1, and reduced fertility and survival. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproductive rate (R0) were reduced in F1, with the greatest reduction observed in the chlorpyrifos treatment. In the F2 generation, the adverse effects were weakened, only the cyantraniliprole treatment had lower values than the control, and the fecundity of other treatments returned to normal. Obvious “hormesis” phenomena were not observed in any of the generations. Based on the population hazard index, chlorpyrifos had the best control effect in the early stage, and cyantraniliprole had the best control effect in the long term. These results indicate that the LC30 of the six insecticides exert different transgenerational effects on the B. dorsalis population.  相似文献
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